In 1752 Dr Richard Russell published Concerning the Use of Sea Water which led to an increase in seaside resorts as doctors began to realise that the healing and relaxing minerals that were present in spa waters were also to be found in the sea. Resorts such as Southend, Brighton and Blackpool began to increase in popularity. Accommodation, catering and entertainment facilities were developed in the resorts, some of which benefited from the introduction of steamboat services in the early nineteenth century, a factor that led to the contribution of many of the piers still seen at seaside resorts today.
The introduction of holiday camps
The first purpose-built holiday camp was opened by Billy Butlin in 1936 at Skegness. Holiday camps worked on the simple principle that if the children were happy on holiday then the parents would be happy as well. Holiday camps provided entertainment and activities for both parents and children at a low, all-inclusive rate with the added bonus of a child-minding service to allow the parents to enjoy themselves.
Butlin’s and Warners became market leaders in this type of holiday which still survives to this day.
Increasing car ownership
The increase of car ownership after the Second World War provided individuals with greater freedom and flexibility in the use of their leisure time. People travelled further, exploring new areas of the British coast and countryside. The number of private cars on the roads of Britain rose steeply from 2.3 million in 1950 to 11 million in 1970. In 1999 the figure exceeded 23 million vehicles.
The upward trend in the ownership has resulted in a drop in demand for traditional types of public transport. The use of trains fell from 48 per cent of all journeys in 1952 to just 8 per cent in 1990. Coach travel dropped from 28 per cent in 1951 to 9 per cent in 1990.
The growth in car ownership in the UK has led to an increase in associated environmental problems, including pollution, congestion and the loss of land to further road building. The development of jet aircraft One positive outcome of the Second World War was the rapid advance in aircraft technology, which led to the growth of a viable commercial aviation industry in Britain and the USA. The excess of aircraft in the immediate post-war years, coupled with the business flair of entrepreneurs including Harold Bamberg of Eagle Airways and Freddie Laker, encouraged the development of holiday travel by air.
Comet aircraft were used in the 1950s, but it was not until the introduction of the faster and more reliable Boeing 707 jets in 1958 that the possibility of air travel becoming reality for the mass of the population was seen. The 1960s saw a surge in demand for scheduled and charter flights, the latter being combined with accommodation transfers and courier services to form the overseas ‘package tour’.
The growth of package tours The 1960s saw the beginning of the rapid increase in the number of package holidays sold. Destinations such as the costal area of Southern Spain, the Balearic Islands and Greece were favourite locations for British and other European travellers. Today in the region of 15 million package holidays are sold to British tourists each year.
Long-haul destinations Long-haul destinations are generally considered to be those beyond Europe, for example the USA, Australia, the Far East and India. Advances in aircraft technology, coupled with low prices offered by some of the mayor holiday companies, have open up many new long-haul destinations in recent years. Places such as Florida, the Gambia, the Caribbean, Goa, Hong Kong, South Africa and Australia have all become popular with British tourists.
Call centres A call centre is a customer service department that uses trained staff available over telephone lines. A company or organisation may have their own call centre or may hire out this function to a call centre company. Ontario has more than 3,000 call centres providing service in every industry from financial to government, tourism, travel, manufacturing, technology and the arts, and over 30 service bureaus. Call centre companies offer complete menus of business-to-business and customer-driven services. The industry is growing at a rate of 20 percent per year.
Call centres have become one of the world’s most important job creators, and a critical resource for the travel and tourism industry. Future developments in travel and tourism The travel and tourism industry will continue to grow in different ways. There will be a number of important influences on the way that the industry develops in the future, including:
1. Social Factors: Demographic trends and social changes will have important impacts on the future development of the industry in the new millennium. The fact that people are living longer, the fall in the number of young people, the increase in one parent households, more couples choosing not to have children or to delay having children all point to the fact that the type of travel and tourism products and services will change radically.
2. Political and Economic factors: On a global scale, the late 1980s saw historic world developments with countries emerging from State control and embracing the Western ‘market economy’. Event such as the demolition of the Berlin Wall have had profound effects on travel and tourism developments; tourists from Western countries are now more able to visit the former Eastern bloc countries, while those from the former East are curious to sample Western hospitality by travelling further afield. The completion of the Single European Market in 1993, with the easing of all the controls, has further increased travel within European member countries.
3. Cultural and environmental factors: The 1980s saw the emergence in Britain of a greater environmental awareness and a society that was beginning too take its health and fitness seriously. These factors are likely to remain important influences on travel and tourism developments in the future with so-called ‘green issues’ high on the agenda.
4. Technological factors: travel and tourism has always been an industry that has made extensive use of new technology equipment. Central reservation system (CRS), the use of computers in travel agencies and sophisticated databases for marketing purposes are now ordinary. Increase in competition within the industry will force organisations to use new technology to the full. New developments in transportation make extensive use of new technology, for example the Channel Tunnel, the advances in aircraft design and opening up new long-hall destinations.
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