Development and behavior in the environment Essay
Development and behavior in the environment
Life is a changing process, from the moment of conception to the moment of death, and there are many complex processes of development that a human being experienced. People have the inherent ability to enlarge, to change and to develop in the entire way of living. People show an underlying continuity from one time of life to another. In other way, they change in one area with aspects of both continuousness and change is considered personality development. Human development is the scientific study of the quantitative and qualitative ways by which people change overtime.
A procedure of becoming something distinct while insom respects are alike. Perhaps what is uniquely human is what we remain in an unending state of development. Life is always an incomplete business, and death is only a cessation. Human Behavior to the Environment According to Papalia (1992) people are not passive sponges, soaking up influences. They actively shape their own environment and they respond to the biotic and abiotic factors in their environment. In the development of all new behavior patterns, even where learning is an important factor, no amount of stimulation or practice will produce the behavior pattern until certain maturation has been reached.
Therefore, it is not the behavior itself that matures, for behavior implies an interaction between the individuals and component in his environment. To study broader aspects of human behavior, it is important to consider the fact that heredity does not operate in void but that it is steadily limited and modified by environment. Theories and Concepts Jean Piaget: Cognitive Stage Theory The Swiss theoretician Jean Piaget (1896-1980) was the most prominent advocate of the organism perspective.
Much of what we know about the way children is due to his creative inquiry. He built complex theories about cognitive development; changes in children thought processes that results in a growing ability to acquire and use knowledge about their world. Piaget believed that from infancy to adolescence, children advance through a predictable series of cognitive stages. Freud’ s Stages of Psychosocial Development Freud believed that personality is precise formed in the first few years of life, as children deal with conflicts between their biological, sexually related urges and the requirement of society.
Freud saw that human personality is made up of three elements, which he called the id, the ego, and the superego. In these elements we will be convinced that humans are urge to do things in their own perspective depending on what kind of element they had adapted from the environment dominate them, this also answers the questions why each person is totally unique from the other. Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Behaviorism In 1906, Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov has discovered a basic form of learning called classical conditioning, also referred to as Pavlov’s conditioning theory, in which an organism comes to associate one stimulus with one another.
Latest research integrate this theory that this basic process can account for how people form certain preferences and fears. Environment All the conditions in the world that influence behavior, growth, development is what we define as environment, it includes the internal (cells, tissues, organs and system of the body), and social ( the people around us both within our family ties, jobs, school and those that seems to give a big influence in our daily living).
The interaction of heredity environment determine human traits and characteristics. Heredity determines how high level of development a given environment can bring about in a given period of time. Environment determines how effective a certain heredity can be in influencing development over a given period of time. The function of the environment is that it supplies the stimuli that set off patterns of response already prepared by maturation. It also provide situation which are conductive to the person’s learning new patterns of altering old ones.
Applied knowledge We will be considering two infant who have different parents lets name them Angie and Charlene, both of their parents work outside the home at full time jobs. Angie’s parents are able to arrange their schedules so that one parent is at home when Angie and her sisters return to school, should the parents be delayed the children go to the neighbor which is a grandmotherly figure. Her parents do their best to give them quality time. Homework is taken seriously by Angie and her parents the reason why Angie at an early age realizes the value of good education.
While on the other side Charlene’s parents like his father does not usually stays at home when he is not working, he can be found with friends at a local bar the same way with her mother who have no longer time in cooking their food and depend on fast food as a regular basis. She has difficulty concentrating in school, and spends a good deal of time with friends at a local bar, all of whom enjoy riding the bus downtown to go to the movies. Angie’s parents are giving her maximum support while Charlene is not experiencing the same amiable but firm urge that encourages Angie to move on and develop into capable young adult.
In this scenario, I could conclude that attention and time is very important in up bringing a child both psychologically and emotionally. Addiction Everything that the mother takes in makes its way to the new life in her uterus. Drugs may cross the placenta, just as oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water do. The use of drug addicting substances such as marijuana, nicotine, cocaine, caffeine and opiates. The use of marijuana by pregnant women could affect her infant’s nervous system and can lead to birth defects. Drugs and chemical agents cross the placenta affect the embryonic and fetal system.
Dynamics of abuse and neglect Adults hurt and neglect children because of various causes including the characteristic of the abuser or neglecter, the victim the family, the community, and the larger culture. Almost of the abusers are not psychotic and do not have criminal personalities; but many are lonely, unhappy, depressed, angry, dissatisfied, isolated and under great stress, or they have health problems that impair their ability to raise their children. Conclusion Human development is not merely an increase in body weight and height of a human being rather it is the total influence of environment and heredity.
The behavior of a person to the environment depends mainly on maturation of his mind and capability of the body to out stand adverse condition, from the start of conception of a mother the time the ovum is fertilized by the sperm cell of the father is the beginning of the development Environment participates seventy percent and thirty percent of heredity in the development of a person, many factors should always to be considered to produce a human that will be an asset to the society.
Work Cited Forgas, J. P. , and G. H. Bower.(1997) “Moods Effects on Personality Perception Judgements. Journals of Personality and Social Psychology. New Jersey. Papalia, D. E. and Olds, S. W. (1992) Human Development (International Edition) USA: McGraw Hill, Inc. Snyder, W. and Ooms, T. (Editors) (1998) Empowering Families, Helping Adolescents. U. S. A. : Diane Publishing. Vander, J. W. , Crander, T. L. , Crandell, C. H. (2007) Human Development (8th Ed. ) USA: McGraw Hill, Inc. Zayas, L. H. , Rojas, M. ,and Malgady, R. (1998). Alcohol and drug use, and depression among Hispanic men in early adulthood. American Journal of Community Psychology.