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Determination of water of hydration Essay

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Observation of copper sulfate

No copper sulfate

Light blue

After heating for about 2-3 minutes, of the powder turns lighter and then into grey-white.

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Water released as vapor is observed from this point. After heating for another 2-3 minutes, of the powder turns into grey-white. After heating for 10 minutes, the whole part of the powder turns into grey-white with some parts of light green

The whole part of the powder remains grey-white with some parts of light green

The whole part of the powder remains grey-white with some parts of light green

* Mass of hydrated copper sulfate (g) = (46.08 � 0.01) – (43.78 � 0.01) = 2.30 � 0.02 (g)

* Mass of water (g) = ( 46.08 � 0.01) – (45.22 � 0.01) = 0.86 � 0.02 (g)

* General reaction: hydrate anhydrous salt + water

CuSO4.xH2O CuSO4 + xH2O

m 2.30 � 0.02 (g) 0.86 � 0.02 (g)

M 160 +18x (g/mol) 18x (g/mol)

* n xH2O (mol) = n CuSO4.xH2O

=

=

(0.86 )(160 + 18x) = )18x

160(0.86 ) + 18x(0.86 ) = )18x

160(0.86 ) = 18x(1.44 0.04)

x = = = 5.3 � 0.3

Conclusion: The value of x in CuSO4.xH2O is quite similar to the value on the label (literal value) of the hydrated copper sulfate jar (% of difference is 6%)

Evaluation

Limitations

Effects

Improvements

The number of experiments carried out is not enough (Random error)

If the data obtained are inaccurate; as a result, the value of x calculated will be inaccurate

Do the experiment many times

When cooling the crucible, water can be reformed in copper sulfate

(random error)

Weight of the crucible may increase

Use a data logger computer to take the mass of the crucible continuously until the mass remains unchanged

The flame is too strong

(random error)

Some copper sulfate molecules may be decomposed

Keep the flame at a reasonable height and temperature

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Hi, I am Sara from Studymoose

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