From their first year babies will start to have more control – hold their head, roll over, sit up unaided, hold a rattle, put everything into their mouths and start to crawl. During their second year development and growth continues and most start to walk. They learn to control their movements and grab objects and food and start to play with toys. They will start to climb and learn to judge distances. Towards their third year, children will have lots more control as their muscles develop and their confidence grows.
Feeding themselves, using a cup and showing an interest in dressing themselves, also able to grip pencils and turn pages in a book. | Babies from birth cry to communicate and react this way to sounds. They then begin to turn their heads in the direction of sounds and use their eyes to follow others. As babies develop they enjoy attention and learn to make noises other than crying and will start to laugh.
By the age of one, most understand simple words like no and yes and their own name. They will start to follow simple instructions.
Between one and two years children start to pronounce words and this will then start to increase rapidly. They watch everything going on around them and recognise people. Between two to three years children recognise the difference between you, me and I and start to ask lots of questions, they won’t always get grammar right. They enjoy songs and have favourite stories. | From birth dependant on adults for comfort which generally stops when cuddled.
Babies respond to adults especially Mothers face and voice. Will start to smile after a few weeks and stare at faces.
As they reach 6 months babies start to enjoy more interaction and perhaps play peek-a-boo and show affection. Between one and two years they may become anxious when separated from known adults, may use a comfort object and start to play alongside other children but not with. They show interest around them and greet know adults with pleasure. Need continuous attention as can get into mischief, does not understand danger. Will get frustrated with themselves if can’t do something they try to do. Two to three years sees a sense of own identity, likes to roll-play, sometimes reluctant to share.
Prone to tantrums, can spoon feed themselves, joins in songs, can use sentences but may not always make sense. Ready to toilet train. | 3 – 7 years| Three to four years – more coordination over movements – jumping with feet together, walk on tip toes, using stairs, catching a gently thrown ball, climbing with confidence. At four to five years they learn to pedal a tricycle and have control with fine motor skills such as cutting and drawing, using scissors, holding pencils. By five their skills become refined. They can hop and kick a ball with aim, handle a pencil with more control and copy shapes and some letters.
Six to seven years most children can skip, ride a bicycle, do up buttons, write, handle larger climbing equipment confidently. | From three to four years children can understand two to three simple commands at once. They sort objects by size, colour and draw some objects. Loves the same stories over and over, very inquisitive, will start to know colours. By age four their grammar improves and they ask more complex questions. They also have a sense of humour. Between five to seven they begin to understand about differences, can count up to 20, know their address.
Also start to recognise written words and start to write words and sentences and make up stories. | Three to four years – play becomes more sociable and able to share. Starts to show sympathy towards others and become more cooperative – likes to help. Pretend play is more complex and self-motivated and behaviour is getting better. They feel more secure and able to cope with separation from family for periods of time. Between five to seven years children can brush their own teeth, dress and undress. Can make friends and is developing a sense of rules. They love learning about people and the real world.
They need routine and structure. Can use a knife and fork and enjoy a little responsibility. | 7 – 12 years| Children can run, jump, climb, swing, hit a ball and enjoys team games by age 8. Can sometimes be unsure of their own ability. May start to have hobbies and interests and have skills required to learn an instrument. About the age of 10-11 girls may start to show early signs of puberty. | Most children will be fluent in language and can read to themselves and also out loud. They start to develop their own thoughts and preferences and are able to discuss ideas.
They take a lively interest in certain subjects over others. They write descriptively and drawing is detailed. They need help with the complexities of spellings. | At seven, friendships will be more settled and tend to be in groups. Children around this age start to become less dependent on adults for close support and have an understanding about behaviour and what is acceptable. By eight, children will start to form close friendships. They form their own personalities. Towards 10 and above children start to become aware of their own gender, and what others may think of them. |