TRANSLATION: The process of turning an original or “source” text into a text in another language. TRANSLATION TECHNIQUES Direct Translation Techniques are used when structural and conceptual elements of the source language can be transposed into the target language. Direct translation techniques include: * Borrowing * Calque * Literal Translation Borrowing Borrowing is the taking of words directly from one language into another without translation. For example software, funk.
English also borrows numerous words from other languages; abbatoire, cafe, passe and resume from French; hamburger and kindergarden from German; bandana, musk and sugar from Sanskrit. Calque A calque or loan translation is a phrase borrowed from another language and translated literally word-for-word. Examples that have been absorbed into English include standpoint and beer garden from German Standpunkt and Biergarten; breakfast from French dejeuner.
A word-for-word translation can be used in some languages and not others dependent on the sentence structure: El equipo esta trabajando para terminar el informe would translate into English as The team is working to finish the report. Sometimes it works and sometimes it does not. And one sentence can be translated literally across languages does not mean that all sentences can be translated literally. El equipo experimentado esta trabajando para terminar el informe translates into English as The experienced team is working to finish the report (“experienced” and “team” are reversed).
Oblique Translation Techniques Oblique Translation Techniques are used when the structural or conceptual elements of the source language cannot be directly translated without altering meaning or upsetting the grammatical and stylistics elements of the target language. Oblique translation techniques include: * Transposition * Modulation * Reformulation or Equivalence * Adaptation * Compensation Transposition This is the process where parts of speech change their sequence when they are translated. It is in a sense a shift of word class.
Grammatical structures are often different in different languages. Transposition is often used between English and Spanish because of the preferred position of the verb in the sentence: English often has the verb near the beginning of a sentence; Spanish can have it closer to the end. This requires that the translator knows that it is possible to replace a word category in the target language without altering the meaning of the source text, for example: English Hand knitted (noun + participle) becomes Spanish Tejido a mano (participle + adverbial phrase).
Modulation Modulation consists of using a phrase that is different in the source and target languages to convey the same idea: Te lo dejo means literally I leave it to you but translates better as You can have it. It changes the semantics and shifts the point of view of the source language. Through modulation, the translator generates a change in the point of view of the message without altering meaning and without generating a sense of embarrassment in the reader of the target text. It is often used within the same language.
The expressions es facil de entender (it is easy to understand) and no es complicado de entender (it is not complicated to understand) are examples of modulation. Reformulation or Equivalence Here you have to express something in a completely different way, for example when translating idioms or advertising slogans. The process is creative, but not always easy. Adaptation Adaptation occurs when something specific to one language culture is expressed in a totally different way that is familiar or appropriate to another language culture. It is a shift in cultural environment.
Should pincho (a Spanish restaurant menu dish) be translated as kebab in English? It involves changing the cultural reference when a situation in the source culture does not exist in the target culture (for example France has Belgian jokes and England has Irish jokes). Compensation In general terms compensation can be used when something cannot be translated, and the meaning that is lost is expressed somewhere else in the translated text. Peter Fawcett defines it as: “… making good in one part of the text something that could not be translated in another”.
One example given by Fawcett is the problem of translating nuances of formality from languages that use forms such as Spanish informal tu and formal usted, French tu and vous, and German du and sie into English which only has ‘you’, and expresses degrees of formality in different ways. WORD: It is one of the units of speech or writing that native speakers of a language usually regard as the smallest isolable meaningful element of the language, although linguists would analyze these further into morphemes
There are eight different kinds of words in the English language. Nouns| Pronouns| Adjectives| Verbs| Adverbs| | Prepositions| | | Conjunctions| | | Interjections| | | NOUNS and VERBS are the most common and most essential. Every English sentence MUST contain a NOUN and a VERB. NOUNS name: people, places, things, ideas. They are always singular or plural. They are always common or proper. They may show ownership. PRONOUNS replace nouns. They have person, number, and case. ADJECTIVES describe nouns. They answer three questions: Which one? What kind?
How many? VERBS have three jobs: show action, act like an equals sign, or hang around a main verb to show tense. They also have person, number, and case. ADVERBS describe verbs. They answer four questions: When? Where? How? How Much? PREPOSITIONS tell anywhere a mouse can run. CONJUNCTIONS connect things. INTERJECTIONS jump into show emotion. Sentence: it is a sequence of words capable of standing alone to make an assertion, ask a question, or give a command, usually consisting of a subject and a predicate containing a finite verb. Kinds of sentences.
Simple Sentence it is a sentence having no coordinate clauses or subordinate clauses. Complex Sentence it is a sentence composed of at least one main clause and one subordinate clause. Compound Sentence it is a sentence composed of at least two coordinate independent clauses. Phrase it is a group of words forming an immediate syntactic constituent of a clause. Clause it is an expression including a subject and predicate but not constituting a complete sentence. Pre-modifier is a word (or words), usually adjectives or adverbs, that comes before the word that it describes.
Basic Modifiers * Adjectives * Adverbs * Prepositional Phrases More Modifiers * Degree Modifier * Presumptive Modifier * Summative Modifier Post-modifier is a word, phrase, or clause that functions as an adjective or adverb to limit or qualify the meaning of another word or word group. Adjective Order Adjectives can be used to describe lots of things, from physical size, age, shape, colour, material, to more abstract things like opinion, origin and purpose. We can use adjectives together to give a detailed description of something.
Adjectives that express opinions usually come before all others, but it can sometimes depend on what exactly you want to emphasize. For instance: “That nice, big, blue bag. ” (You like the bag. ) “That big, nice, blue bag. ” (You like the colour. ) When adjectives are together there is a general rule for the position of each type adjective, these are: Position| 1st*| 2nd*| 3rd| 4th| 5th| 6th| 7th| 8th| | Opinion| Size| Age| Shape| Colour| Material| Origin| Purpose| | Nice| Small| Old| Square| Black| Plastic| British| Racing| | Ugly| Big| New| Circular| Blue| Cotton| American| Running|.