The main causes of deforestation are summarized below: (i) Population explosion (ii) Agriculture: shifting cultivation, overgrazing, cash crop economy etc. iii) Commercial logging: cutting trees for sale as timber or pulp (iv) Poverty (v) Mining (vi) Dams (vii) Infrastructure creation for logging (viii) Forest-fires (ix) Acid rain (x) Development projects and housing projects. Effects of Deforestation: The ill-effects of deforestation are summarized below: (i) Soil erosion: Soil is exposed to wind, sunlight, and evaporation due to deforestation.
Soil fertility goes down due to soil erosion and rapid leaching of essential mineral nutrients.
ii) Harm to fisheries: As the soil is eroded, it accelerates siltation in dams, rivers, and the coastal zone. The increased sedimentation harms downstream fisheries. (iii) More floods and droughts: Because of deforestation, there is no regulation of the flow into rivers. As result, floods and droughts alternate in the affected areas. (iv) Habitat loss of wildlife: Butterflies, migratory birds, wild animals suffer due to the loss of their habitat.
(v) Extinction of some species:
Many species are affected and some get extincted. (vi) Local and global climate changes: The rainfall pattern is affected as the forest is cut down. Local and global climate changes may result from deforestation. (vii) Global warming: If the trees are burned, the carbon is released immediately as carbon dioxide which leads to global warming. (viii) Danger for the survival of local communities: Communities lose their source of food, fuel, construction materials and areas for livestock grazing by deforestation.