Cycling Route Definition Based On Personal Exposure To Air Pollution

Abstract

Transportation activity appears as one of the most important contributors to daily personal exposure to air pollution. For cyclists, the amount of air inhaled during a trip is up to 4.3 times greater than that of an automobile passenger. Therefore, it is estimated that inhaled doses of contaminants are also higher – an aspect that has been ignored or underestimated in previous studies. In addition, pollutants as the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) present in the air favors the development of respiratory diseases and cancer and a limited number of studies have focused on integrating inhaled doses of PM2.

5 with both cycling mode and route choice. Hence, this research aims to analyze the spatial and temporal variation of PM2.5 concentrations on cycling networks in cities equipped with air quality monitoring stations and combine them with estimated inhaled doses for each path, so that preferred routes can be identified. For that, a geographic information system (SIG) software will be used in order to estimate the personal exposure to PM2.

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5 in different routes, by combining estimated breathing rates of cyclists as result of the physical activity performed while commuting with the pollutant concentration values. As result, preferred paths are expected to be identified so that cyclists may be aware of their personal exposure to PM2.5 among each possible route and make an informed decision. Comment by Martin, Cassio N: Eu colocaria um ponto final e iniciaria nova oração, pois sem ponto a frase fica confusa e com dois ANDsDiseases and cancer. A limited number of studies have focused on Comment by Martin, Cassio N: Voce usou a palavra result na frase acima.

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Eu trocaria por outra locução adverbial.

Problem statement and research goals: Air pollution in urban environments has serious implications for the health and life quality of its inhabitants (DELIGIORG, PHILIPPOPOULOS, 2011, p. 341). By combining daily exposure by activity with time records by activity, transportation appears as the most important contributor to personal exposure to air pollution (DONS et. al, 2011). Also, the overall inhalation of air pollutants may vary considerably according to the commuter behavior and route choice (NAZELLE et al, 2012; RAGETTLI et al, 2013; ZUURBIER et al, 2010).

Records indicate that short-term peaks are more prevalent during bicycle than car journeys, and that the amount of inhaled air from physical activity during bicycle travel is as much as 4.3 times higher than for a car passenger (DONS et al, 2011; PANIS et al, 2010). This difference is caused by the increased ventilation rate (ventilation per minute) in cyclists, which significantly increases their exposure to traffic escape. Thus, it is estimated that inhaled doses of air pollution are higher for cyclists – an aspect ignored or severely underestimated in previous studies (ZUURBIER et al, 2010; PANIS et al, 2010).

In addition, a number of studies have pointed for the importance of considering route choice in exposure assessment studies (RAGETTLI et al, 2013; ZUURBIER et al, 2010; PANIS et al, 2010). For ultra fine particle exposure, Ragettli et al (2013) found that bicycle commuters could reduce their personal exposure by half if main roads were avoided. It comes in line with Nazelle et al (2012) and Zuurbier et al (2010) who demonstrate that particulate matter exposures are higher on high-traffic routes than on low-traffic routes.

Exposure to air pollution in traffic has been related to short-term cardiovascular and respiratory health effects in a number of studies (ZUURBIER et al, 2010; DONS et al, 2012; RAGETTLI et al, 2013; NAZELLE et al, 2012). Among the known air pollutants, particulate matter (PM) is pointed as the most harmful to human health (CESAR et al., 2013). Exposure to PM favors the development of respiratory diseases as well as infections and cancer (GBD 2013 Collaborators, 2015). Capable of penetrating deep into the lungs, the fine MP (MP2.5, particles with an aerodynamic diameter of 2.5 micrometers or less) remain in the air for weeks and may travel hundreds or thousands of kilometers (GREENSTONE, FAN, 2018).

Therefore, this research aims to analyze the spatial and temporal variation of PM2.5 concentrations on cycling networks in cities equipped with PM2.5 monitoring stations and combine them with estimated inhaled doses for each path, so that preferred routes can be identified. It also comes to contribute to existing literature on calculating exposure during cycling travels, by incorporating breathing rates from physical activity.

Methods: In order to estimate the personal exposure to PM2.5 on cycling routes, two main steps are required: i) analyzing atmospheric PM2.5 concentrations on cycling routes and ii) estimating inhaled doses of PM2,5 by incorporating breathing rates from physical activity. As for the pollutant concentrations, access to local monitoring station data is required so that statistic analysis may be conducted and estimating values for non-measured areas can be performed through spatial interpolation method. Statistical analysis may include mean temporal concentrations for monitoring stations as well as variations on day time, week days, months and seasons. Data could therefore be displayed and spatialized through a SIG software which allows both spatial and temporal analyzes to be conducted. Monitoring records may be either accessed, if not through local agencies, through air quality database such as from World Health Organization (WHO), European Environmental Agency (EEA) or US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA). Comment by Usuario: https://www.who.int/quantifying_ehimpacts/global/source_apport/en/ Comment by Usuario: https://www.eea.europa.eu/themes/air/air-emissions-data/air-pollutant-emissions-eea-datasets Comment by Usuario: https://www.epa.gov/outdoor-air-quality-data

For estimating inhaled doses of PM2,5, breathing rates may be inferred as result of the physical activity performed on cycling routes. For that, it may be used topography variation as an input for estimating ventilation rates (minute ventilation, VE), by combining breathing frequency with tidal volume (PANIS, 2010, p. 2265). Inhaled amounts of pollutant are therefore calculated by multiplying PM2,5 mass with VE. The lung deposited fraction is determined based on published deposition factors (DF) which decrease strongly with particle size and increase with tidal volume (Jaques and Kim, 2000). Lung deposited dose can be related to cycling intensity by using data presented in Daigle et al. (2003) who report that DF strongly increases with exercise. Additional adjustments may be necessary as for differentiating men, women, age and weight. Standards parameters may be adopted so that a general exposure estimation can be conducted.

Expected Results

[[mapas com variações espaço-temporais das concentrações; identificação de trechos críticos nas malhas cicloviárias; “roterizador” com melhores rotas a partir da exposição ao PM2.5; raise awareness for cyclists]]

References

  1. Cesar, A. C. G.; Nascimento, L. F. C.; Júnior, J. A. de C. (2013). Associação entre exposição ao material particulado e internações por doenças respiratórias em crianças. Saúde Pública, 2013;47(6):1209-1212.
  2. Deligiorgi, D., Philippopoulos, K. (2011). Spatial Interpolation Methodologies in Urban Air Pollution. Modeling: Application for the Greater Area of Metropolitan Athens, Greece, Advanced Air Pollution, Dr. Farhad. Nejadkoorki (Ed.), ISBN: 978-953-307-511-2, InTech.
  3. Dons, E.; Panis, L. I.; Poppel, M. V.; Theunis, J.; Willems, H.; Torfs, R.; Wets, G. (2011). Impact of time-activity patterns on personal exposure to black carbon. Atmospheric Environment, 45, (2011), 3594-3602.
  4. Dons, E.; Panis, L. I.; Poppel, M. V.; Theunis, J.; Wets, G. (2012). Personal exposure to Black Carbon in transport microenvironments. Atmospheric Environment, 55, (2012), 392-398.
  5. GBD 2013 Collaborators (2015). Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990–2013: a systematic analysis for the global burden of disease study 2013. The Lancet, 396, (10010): 2287–2323.
  6. Greenstone, M.; Fan, C. Q. (2018). Introducing the air quality life index. Twelve facts about particulate air pollution, human health, and global policy. Energy Policy Institute, University of Chicago. Available at: < https://aqli.epic.uchicago.edu/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/AQLI-Report.111918-2.pdf>. Acess in: 10 jan. 2019.
  7. Nazelle, A. de, Fruin, S., Westerdahl, D., Martinez, D., Ripoll, A., Kubesch, N., & Nieuwenhuijsen, M. (2012). A travel mode comparison of commuters’ exposures to air pollutants in Barcelona. Atmospheric Environment, 59, 151–159. doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.05.013
  8. Panis, L. I., Geus, B. De, Vandenbulcke, G., Willems, H., Degraeuwe, B., Bleux, N., Mishra, V., Thomas, I., Meeusen, R. (2010). Exposure to particulate matter in traffic: A comparison of cyclists and car passengers. Atmospheric Environment. Volume 44, Issue 19, June 2010, Pages 2263-2270.
  9. Ragettli, M. S., Corradi, E., Braun-Fahrländer, C., Schindler, C., de Nazelle, A., Jerrett, M., … Phuleria, H. C. (2013). Commuter exposure to ultrafine particles in different urban locations, transportation modes and routes. Atmospheric Environment, 77, 376–384.
  10. World Bank Group. (2016). The Cost of Air Pollution: Strengthening the Economic Case for Action. Available at: . Acess in: 08 dez. 2018.
  11. Zuurbier, M.; Hoek, G.; Oldenwening, M.; Lenters, V.; Meliefste, K.; Hazel, P. V D.; Brunekreef, B. (2010). Commuters’ Exposure to Particulate Matter Air Pollution Is Affected by Mode of Transport, Fuel Type, and Route. Environmental Health Perspect. 2010 Jun; 118(6): 783–789.
  12. Data policy: [what you intend to do with the output of your project?] [[making data sets public; possibly developing and making an open sourcing code available; contributing to the academic community]]

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Cycling Route Definition Based On Personal Exposure To Air Pollution. (2021, Feb 19). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/cycling-route-definition-based-on-personal-exposure-to-air-pollution-essay

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