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The register based conventional attendance system for the students in our educational institution is laborious, time consuming and kind of boring task for the educators. An intelligent system based on fingerprint scanner have been designed and implemented that supplanted the traditional mundane attendance system. The system can acquire, store, crosscheck the fingerprint of individuals and export the data in the form of Microsoft excel spreadsheet in a memory module. The entire procedures are supervised by a microcontroller.
This smart attendance kit is portable, handy, cheap and reliable. Introduction Biom etrics is a method of identifying a person based on a physiological characteristic. Biometric data are discrete and unique like odor, fingerprints, iris, retinal, voice and face geometry. Biometric templates cannot be reverse -engineered or duplicated t o access personal information. Today, the important biometric characteristics of human body like fingerprint or iris is one of the best and sophisticated methods to identify and verify a particular person.
Finger print scanner is one of the finest discover ies of science and bioelectronics.
In our hand, ten fingers have ten fingerprints different from each other. Because of its uniqueness fingerprints is playing a vital role in modern biometrics technologies. A fingerprint scanner does a simple task; it acquires an image of the prints from the fingertip and crosschecks it with the image previously saved. A fingerprint is made of a series of ridges’ and valleys’ on the surface of the finger. It compares these patterns of ridges’ and valleys’.
If the tw o patterns matches, then access is established.The fingerprint scanners are mainly optical scanners. It takes the pictures of the fingerprint and generates an inverted image by reflecting the light from the ridges. The scanner compares some specific areas of fingerprints called minutiae. The scanner stores some series of minutiae for checking and investigating. So it is virtually impossible to replicate fingerprints with these details available. Fingerprint scanners are more secure methods than any other methods in verification or identification.
Authors in have proposed an attendance system with fingerprint scanner. But the process is bit complex. We have tried to overcome complexity by making our system simpler. Authors in have also proposed anot her attendance system with fingerprint scanner. But here, the data must be transferred to computer in order to update the database. But in our system, the database is automatically updated and written on memory module. Algorithm Flowchart of the entire procedure of seeking attendance by the intelligent system.
The basic i dea and block diagram of our module is given below. Fig .1: The Block Diagram of Biometric Smart Attendance Kit. Memory Module Fingerprint Module Matrix Keypad LCD Display RTC Module MicrocontrollerHardware Description In our design, we have used GT -511C3 which is a high speed and high accuracy finger print scanner shown in figure 2. It uses SmackFinger 3.0 Algorithm it has an onboard optical sensor that capture the image of the finger which is also capable of 360є recognition, internal 32 -bit processor that process the captured image and make it in a stream of bits and stores it in an onboard memory. The memory can save up to 200 different fingerprints. The processor communicates with its master in simple UART protocol. The finger print scanner is easy to interface with the microcontroller. It has transmitter and receiver pin to communicate with controller. Fig. 2: Fingerprint scanner A DS1307 RTC (real time clock) has been included in this system to keep track on current date and time of attendance taken place.
The DS1307 is suitable for this system for its power manageme nt and it consumes less than 500nA in Battery -Backup. We have used Hitachi’s alphanumeric dot matrix LCD in our module to represent information during attendance taking . Besides we have used a 4×4 matrix keypad to enter the course code by the educators. W e can activate and deactivate the fingerprint scanner with particular keys of this keypad. To store the processed data, a Micro SD card has been used as memory module.At the end of every course the full data of attendance is updated into the card witho ut the help of any other external device like desktop pc or laptop. The processing unit of the system is ATmega2560 shown in f igure 3  . Microcontroller initiates the scanner and terminates it when all attendance has been taken. It receives the course number entered from the keypad and updates the attendance data on the micro SD card with corresponding date and time. Fig.3 :ATmega2560
The figure 4 shows a Graphical User Interface (GUI) that was build in Visual Basic to control the fingerprint scanner to enroll the students in their specified ID. The finger print scanner communicates with the microcontroller at a baudrate of 9600.besides more baudra tes are also available for communicate with diffrenet devices. The baudrate and serial port number can be selected from the Graphical user interface. By using this software, we can enroll 200 different fingerprints at a time. The finger prints r being sav ed in its internal database. We can verify the individual or identify the individual by thisgraphical interface u sing same fingerprint scanner. F or more sofisticated purpose, we can also save the image of the fingerprin ts image in external database. T he G raphical User Interface gives flexibility of enrolling or deleteing any individual from 0 to 199 at any time. Before taking attendance, the fingerprints must be enrolled at first. The internal database of the fingerprint scanner is enriched. When seeking a ttendance, the fingerprint scanner crosschecks the fingerprint with previously saved fingerprint saved during enrollment. The flowchart of enrollment is shown in figure 5. Fig. 4 : The GUI of the software for enrollment Fig. 5 : Flow chart of Enrollment Attendance Processing .
When the Smart Attendance Kit is activated it will show a welcome message. Fig. 6 : Welcome message Start FPS activated Enroll Command Enrollment starts If Enroll Completed?
After a while it will seek for a Course code number (shown in figure.7 ). When the correct code is entered the fingerprint scanner will be activated and gets ready for scanning the fi ngerprints. (s hown in figure. 8 ) Fig. 7 : Seeking Course code Fig.8 : Fingerprint scanner initiates When enrolled student pressed his/her finger the kit will show a message in the LCD that attendance has been accepted . Fig. 9 : Attendance taken completed. At last when attendance procedure has been completed, the fingerprint scanner is deactivated and data are written to the SD card .
The system that has been designed and implemented has been tested on 60 students. The students were properly identified and their attendance has been updated successfully. After completing the file writing on the Micro SD card, the Microsoft Exc el file will look like as shown in figure 10 . The students ID’s are in the rows and date/ time of the attendance taken are in the column. When a student gives attendance, 1 is being written under his ID. If a student is absent, then 0′ is being written. This is a more accurate and reliable system. T he Microsoft Excel file can be viewed at any time. W hen a new course is being entered , a new Excel file is automatically created in the MicroSD card corresponding to that particular course number.Fig. 10 : Microsoft Excel file of the attendance.
Our main objective is to make a complete full functional fingerprint attendance system that will replace the traditional attendance system. We have successfully designed and implemented a secure, fast, reliable and an efficient fingerprint attendance system. This system can replace not only attendance system but any other system requires verification in near future.
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