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According to Amoroso (2012), as well as other authors on the topic of cyber-attacks, common ground has been identified that these forms of unauthorized access of data are expected to continue (Amoroso, 2012). After the invention of the computer, attacks were present only from a different perspective, from internal or supplier adversaries. They offered the only exploitable positions for data that was not to be shared with the competition or enemies. However, today, the internet has added another perspective from which data can be accessed without authorization and that is through remote access.
In the situation provided, the DHS (Department of Homeland Security) experienced a coordinated attack from one of its political enemy China and the majority of the nation’s infrastructure has either been limited or shut down practically disabling the government from all fronts. Amoroso in his book identifies that the national infrastructure is responsible for ensuring that the majority if not all basic functionality of the U.S. is all managed from a central point.
After appreciating the complex and unconventional security taxonomy applied in the national infrastructure system, the best and most effective means of slowing down the problem is isolation. Isolating the various affected systems will provide the DHS with the needed time to identify whether the attack is intrusion or malware-based. However, this will only provide temporary solutions to the problem. This is because even after restoring systems to normal functionality, they will still be prone to attacks. Therefore, the DHS should be tasked with the role of implementing various techniques such as separation, diversity, and deception (Amoroso, 2012).
Separation refers to the commonly known use of firewalls to prevent remote attacks. Nevertheless, when it comes systems used in the national infrastructure, Amoroso states that it would require three specific changes (Amoroso, 2012). Namely, network-based firewalls to prevent extremal remote attacks, internal firewalls to negate the prospects of sabotage and finally specially tailored firewalls to protect vital functionalities that are not to be disclosed to the public such as the SCADA (Supervisory control and data acquisition) protocols (Amoroso, 2012).
When it comes to deception, this is the creation of uncertainty for adversaries. This technique can be used as both a defensive measure as well as an offensive measure as it creates non-existent gaps for hackers to exploit thereby indirectly protecting the national infrastructure systems (Amoroso, 2012). Nonetheless, its offensive aspects come into play when the non-existent gaps are turned into traps to aid in the identification of the adversaries. Finally, diversity is the by far the best solution as by using different programs as well as the hardware it increased both difficulties in exploiting weaknesses but also reduces chances of attacks as different products have different weaknesses (Amoroso, 2012).
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