This essay will aim to include my understanding and perception of the cultural industries, how it developed into the creative industries and how globalisation has impacted this sector through looking specifically at exampled from Sheffield. Originating from the 1940’s the Cultural Industries was known as ‘The cultural Industry’ taken from a book written by Adorno and Horkheimer called ‘ Dialektik der Aufklarung’ from the chapter ‘Dialect of Enlightenment’. They thought of the Creative Industry as ‘ art with special, exceptional forms of Human creativity’ (Hesmondhalgh 2007).
By the late 1960’s the Cultural Industry became comodified and was intertwining with other industries such as film, television and music as these were socially popular, the cultural Industry was re-named ‘The Cultural Industries’. Through new service industry growth and new labour, the Cultural Industries was turned into ‘The Creative Industries’ in the 1990’s and is still known as this in current society. ‘The creative Industries are those Industries that are based on individual creativity, skill and talent’ (DCMS).
These creative industries include 13 categories: Advertising, architecture, arts and antique’s, computer and video games, crafts, design, designer fashion, film, and video, music, performing arts, publishing, software, TV and Radio. From when the cultural/ creative industries were first produced they have achieved huge industry growth rates for example: between 1997 and 2001 the UK’s creative industries grew by 8% per annum, with the most popular sector being TV and Radio and around about 122,000 organisations traded in the creative Industries since 1997( Montgomery, J 2007).
This service Industry growth is mainly down to Globalisation which is defined as ‘ the world becoming more interdependent and integrated’ (Moynagh and Worsely, 2008). Globalisation links with economic power and consumption for mass markets and making them become global. They do this by customizing products, making them innovative and unique, and by using sub-contractors hope to get the products known globally.
For example; in the fashion industry a designer will create a product that they want to produce globally to a specific target market, once they have created the product they will need to manufacture the product, ship the product and make it available for a global market to purchase. They will do this by having products made in countries such as Turkey or China as this method is cheaper and quicker, and have it shipped over to other companies to make it global.
Through the virtual innovations such as the internet, and communication systems, the product can be marketed globally. ‘Globalisation also involves the global integration of production factors and services. ‘National’ industries ‘selling abroad’ are increasingly giving way to the organisation of production and distribution on a global scale, sourcing materials, labour, services etc. across borders with little or no attachment to particular places’ (Brown et al 2000). There are many Pro’s and Con’s regarding Globalisation, due to its features and tensions.
Globalisation features; to name a few include aspects such as transportation and distribution: getting the goods to the destination from the manufacturers as quick as possible, Growth of Cities: Many Cities are moving from rural areas to urban areas through the growth of industries and trade, Free trade: to allow companies to trade without government barriers or trade policy, Multi Nationals: Different nationality companies will be working along side one another in one country and Global Culture: the development of standardisation and the idea that everything will start to look ad feel the same.
Although this means that buying and selling overseas will become more integrated and connected through fast distribution and manufacturing, it also creates problems known as tensions of globalisation. A few of these tensions are; Poverty: Globalisation may mean that in poorer countries there are increases in ‘sweat shops’ where poorer people are made to work long hours top help manufacture products to help the fast trade of Globalisation. In poor Asian economies, such as Bangladesh, Vietnam and Cambodia, large numbers of women now have work in garment export factories. Their wages are low by world standards but much higher than they would earn in alternative occupations’ (Bardhan, P 2006). Economic Growth: many traders have fled poorer countries in order to gain more trade in multi-national, urban areas. Oligopoly: There will no longer be one current market brand leader, as everything will be integrated and manufactured the same, causing competition in market brands.
Global vs. Local: The idea that local economies will be decreasing through products no longer being unique, through the speed of communication, how fast the brand becomes global. An article by Shah, A 2009 says: ‘Following a period of economic boom, a financial bubble—global in scope—has now burst. The extent of this problem has been so severe that some of the world’s largest financial institutions have collapsed and local manufactures have been bought out by their competition at low prices’.
This demonstrates the impact that globalization has had on small businesses and how competition between organizations is becoming increasingly tougher. These features and tensions need to be considered in order to gain an understanding of the impacts of Globalisation and the positive and negative points that need to be considered in terms of the struggling economies and inequalities that may occur in parts of the world.
Globalisation also works off economic, political, social, cultural and environmental aspects and entails better communication; through social networking sites, developing relationships; through computer and internet innovations which link people together, and the decline in human contact; people are no longer conducting meetings as they can have video conferencing with people on the other side of the world.
One example of a globalised cultural Industry in the UK would be The Stonehenge, a World Heritage Site which is known as a place for worship and healing. This tourist attraction sees thousands of visitors pass it every year, visiting from all over the world. The world Heritage site’s include The great Barrier Reef, Great Wall of China, Galapagos Islands and many more, their mission’s include is to promote public awareness of the sites and encourage international cooperation in the conservation of the World heritage sites (unesco. rg).
After looking into globalisation; it’s positive and negative aspects in gaining a deeper understanding of the subject, I can now establish an understanding of how globalisation has impacted Sheffield’s Cultural Industries and weigh up affects it may have had on this industry. The growth of the Cultural Industries meant that in the UK a huge amount of employment was generated, which was extremely beneficial to Sheffield as it meant that 7. 2% of people were working for the creative Industries, this ame at a good time following the collapse of the steel industry after Britain let a failed trip to Japan to buy machinery to cater for the Steel industry needs. After a strike from the workers the Steel Industry closed in Sheffield and meant a loss of 50,000 jobs were incurred. Today in the Sheffield region of South Yorkshire, the Cultural Industries employment rates are above 20% of the average employment, rating above hotels and catering, and below the retail and education industries.
It is continuing to expand through the Cultural Industries Quarter located in the city centre which contains BBC Radio Sheffield, Sheffield Hallam University, Perishable Works, and Exchange works. A quote from a BBC News report 2006 shows: ‘All very much in keeping with the new Sheffield. The area near the train station has been re-dubbed the cultural quarter, a loose collection of creative and multi-media firms with the Showroom Cinema and Workstation Cultural Industries Business Centre at its heart’.
The CIQ is a non-profit organisation with a ‘ wide ranging powers to support and promote the growth of the cultural industries in Sheffield’ (CIQ Agency 2006). These establishments are all in short distance from each other creating a business community, a range of building sizes, university connectivity and transport links (CIQ Online 2006). Other creative industries around the city include; Botanical Gardens, Peace Gardens, Sheffield Museum and art Gallery and the Crucible.
One organization that was established though the cultural Industries Quarter is the Workstation, a creative Business Centre combined with the Showroom Cinema, an independent picture house showing contemporary, classic film, and film from different cultures. It is now an internationally significant cultural centre which hosts annual events and festivals such as The Children’s Film Festival, Sheffield Adventure Film Festival, Sensoria Festival of Music & Film and Celluloid Screams. The Showroom regularly hosts festivals and creative events which give a chance to meet experts from different media, learn new skills and cultivate new ideas.
Globalisation has had huge affects from the Cultural Industries being successful through the determination of the company becoming globally recognised. According to a journal article written by Brown et al 2000, it states that there was a four stage development plan to move the CIQ from being local, regional, national to internationally known by 1) Nurturing local music/ cultural businesses, 2) create a tourist attraction to bring people to Sheffield and 3) Using these points to create a better image of the city.
The creative director of the CIQ stresses that “We don’t want it to be seen as a Sheffield centre, but a national one”. Through working on these plans Sheffield’s Cultural Industries Quarter have seen visitor numbers up to 500,000 per year which is proven to be a success. Through speaking to the manager of the Showroom in Sheffield, it is clear that through times of the recession and the ‘credit crunch’ the independent cinema has to market its events and showings carefully to ensure that the visitors are still attending.
As the venues most frequent visitors are older people who tend to have a lot of disposable income, they already have a captive audience. However, to gain awareness they have to capture various other market groups to expand it’s global awareness for example; they can target different ethnic groups and communities through showing different nationality and religious films to attract the certain audience.
To conclude, through researching the Cultural Industries and how it has developed through time into the Creative Industries I now have a deeper insight into the background knowledge of the subject and can link it to globalisation and how they have positive and negative affects on one another. From researching Globalisation and the pro’s and con’s it brings to the economy, I can now realise that Globalisation can create as much poverty as it can capital, and the affects it has on local businesses, trades, and workers.
The Cultural Industries Quarter in Sheffield has impacted from globalisation through the development and infrastructure of its diverse buildings and content. For example; the showroom has attracted audiences internationally as well as regionally through its specific showings at the cinema and it continues to grow by making Sheffield a ‘Music City’ by building more buildings to help expand the Cultural Industries Quarter. Finally, globalisation has shaped a mass market for the global economy as a whole and has profoundly meant that the cultural Industries are expanding and recognisable.