Cultural Differences and Translation of Idioms
Cultural Differences and Translation of Idioms
Language and culture are closely connected and inseparable, as a language idiom is the essence of the deposition of the fascinating history and culture. Because of geography, history, religion, customs and other aspects of life differences between Chinese and English Idioms carrying characteristics of the different cultures and cultural information, so English-Chinese Idioms often encounter many difficulties.
From the geographical environment, historical background, customs and religious beliefs described four aspects of cultural differences between Britain and China on the impact of the formation of their respective idioms, and detailed description of English Idioms translation to deal with this cultural difference in several commonly used translation .
Keywords: language; culture; cultural differences; Idioms Translation 1, English idioms and cultural differences reflected in the (A) The environment The natural environment is mankind’s survival and the basis for the development of different natural environment of the formation and development of national culture have different effects. Chinese people living in the vast expanse of fertile continent of East Asia, China since ancient times is a large agricultural country, the land in people’s lives is vital. Therefore, there is a considerable portion of Chinese agriculture and land-related idioms. Such as ‘good weather”dead end”extermination”big spenders’ and so on.
Britain is an island surrounded by water. Maritime history, have been living in a world leader, so in English and will have a lot of water, fish, and marine-related idiom. Such as weak as water (fragile), drink like a fish (booze), to miss the boat (missed opportunities), all at sea (a loss). In the Chinese cultural atmosphere, the ‘wind’ that is ‘spring wind’, in the summer heat often associated with the Ku Shu, ‘scorch like fire’, ‘Jiaoyangsihuo’ is often used to describe the summer term .
The United Kingdom is located in the western hemisphere north temperate zone, is a marine climate, the report is that the message of spring westerly, the British poet Shelley’s ‘West Wind Song’ (ode to the west wi nd) is the right spring Acura. England’s summer season is warm and pleasant, often with ‘lovely’, ‘moderate’, ‘OK’ connected. Shakespeare in his sonnets in one compared to the summer of love, Shall I compare thee to asummer’s day? Thou are more lovely and more temperate. (B)
The historical allusion From a certain point of view that language is a nation’s cultural memory and precipitation, the large number of Chinese idioms are based on the nation’s history, economy, culture, traditions, habits, formed the basis, with a strong national cultural characteristics of and far-reaching social and historical origins, often can not be understood from the literal meaning and translation. Such as ‘mere copycat’, ‘Minglasunshan’, ‘lose the wife of another soldier off”Three Stooges, the top one wise’ and so on.
English idioms idioms come from the ‘Bible’ and the Greek and Roman mythology, but also have their specific content, such as Achilles’heel (the only fatal weakness), meetone’s waterloo (suffered a crushing defeat), a Pandora’s box (Pandora’s box), the Trojanhorse (Trojan horse from Greek mythology), arrow of Cupid (????? , from Roman mythology). (C) The difference between practice In traditional Chinese culture, the dragon is a symbol of auspicious animals. In feudal society, imperial dragon is a symbol, authority and elegance. Thus, in Chinese and dragon-related idioms generally contain compliment.
Such as ‘Dragon and Phoenix Succeed””Chenglongkuaixu’ and so on. However, myths and legends of the West, dragon wings, it is a long, scaly body, dragging a long tail, fire-breathing from the mouth of animals, it is terrifying. Therefore, as Long as the murderous havoc Westerners thing, to be eliminated. In addition, the dog in Chinese is a humble animal. Chinese idioms with dog-related mostly derogatory: ‘Fox Peng Dog Party’, ‘Goujitiaoqiang’, ‘a dog’s mouth spit no ivory’ and so on, while in the Western English-speaking countries, dogs are considered man’s most loyal friend .
English idiom In addition to the dog’s part due to the impact of other languages, which includes a derogatory sense, most of them are not meant to be derogatory. Idioms in English, often with the dog’s image to describe human behavior. If Youare a lucky dog (you are one lucky), Every dog has his day (mortal Jieyou proud days). In contrast, the Chinese people are very loved cats, with the ‘Chan Mao’ metaphor man gluttonous, often intimate components, while in Western culture, ‘cat’ is used to metaphor ‘a malicious woman’. (Iv) religious beliefs.
Every nation has its own religious beliefs and religious culture, its people’s values and lifestyle of the formation and language have a subtle impact. In the long history of several thousand years, the Chinese nation is predominantly Buddhist and Taoist. Therefore, there are many Chinese Buddhism, Taoism-related idioms, such as ‘Jiehuaxianfo????? ”Road”Bearing in mind that’ and so on. In addition, the Chinese people still worship gods, such as ‘right and proper”thank God”Heaven always leaves people a way out’ and so on. Chinese emperors also claim to be ‘true sons of the dragon’.
In the United Kingdom and other Western countries, the greatest impact of religion is Christianity. In the Western mind, God has a supreme supernatural power. There are also a number of English idioms with the God-related idioms. If God helps those who help themselves (God helps those who help themselves), Man proposes, God disposes (Man proposes, God disposes days). Curse a person is often said that God damn you, danger often said after the Thank God, or God bless you. Christian doctrine ‘Bible’ has been regarded as a classic of Western culture. Many English idioms is precisely because of this.
Such as the finger on the wall (writing on the wall), cast one’s bread upon the waters (really do good, without asking for anything). From the above aspects, we can see the impact of culture on idiom far-reaching and extensive. To correctly understand the English language learners and successful conduct of Idioms Idioms translation, we must first English-Chinese have a deep understanding of both cultures. Second, the main method Idioms Translation Translation is the conversion between the two languages, while the close relationship between language and culture conversion request must be in the language of cultural conversion.
In view of this, the translator can not be literally literal translation, we must better understand the culture behind the literal information, using the original understanding of the original language and cultural knowledge to their own understanding, based on in another language such as that of the target language for the kinds of transformation, for the reader to pass the original translation accurate information, press ‘functional equivalence’ principle so that ‘the reader to reflect the same’.
Therefore, the idioms translated the one hand, as far as possible with the original meaning of ‘the most appropriate, the most natural reproduction of such words come out’, with Nida’s words, that is, ‘The best translation does no t sound like a translation’; the other On the one hand, but also make every effort to display the original cultural information on the translation readers to understand the cultural information contained in the original. Main methods are: reposted elsewhere in the paper for free Download Center http://www. hi138. com (A) Literal Translation.
The so-called literal translation method, is not against the target language norms, and Lenovo are not under the conditions that caused the error in the translation to retain the original idiom metaphor, image and national, local features approach. It applies to some extent due to the use of a wide number of more of its literal meaning and metaphorical meaning has been widely accepted by the reader for the translation idioms. If a gentleman’s agreement (a gentleman’s agreement); armed to the teeth (armed to the teeth); to fish in troubled water (fish in troubled waters); paper tiger (paper tiger);???????
(draw water in a bamboo basket). Literal translation of the advantage of being able to retain more complete image of the original idiom metaphor, ethnic style, color and language. However, if the interpreter too much or too literal translation properly, it’s easy to make the reader feel funny or ridiculous, even give rise to misunderstanding or error association. Such as:??????? (Until all is over, ambition never dies. ), The Pig falsely accuse the Chinese (To put blame on one’s victim.)
‘Yellow’ and ‘The Pig’ and other words have an obvious cultural traits, if the literal translation, foreign readers will not understand why, only to ‘functional equivalence’ approach interpreter to readers in the East and the West has caused and is willing to match feelings. (B) literal explanation France In order to preserve the cultural information contained in the original, it is more use of literal, rather than paraphrase, but because of language rooted in the cultural soil is different from literal translation is likely to be ambiguous and vague.
In this case, only in conjunction with appropriate annotation in order to pass the original text of cultural information. For example, a Don Juan (Don Juan, which means Merry prodigal son), to carry coals to New castle (coal to Newcastle, means superfluous, Newcastle – a British coal Center), N. (show off one’s proficiency with axe before L u Ban, the master carpenter), mere copycat (The ugly imitates the beautiful in such a destroyed way that the ugliness of the ugly becomes worse. ). (C) the equivalent ILL Method.
Idioms right and others are reflected in three aspects, namely metaphor meaning, form and emotional metaphors. Some English Idioms and Chinese idioms, whether in content or in form or emotional, both relatively close to this time, idioms translated to equivalent ILL method can be used, or apply the law synonymous idiom. This approach not only to retain the image of the source language, style, consistent with the target language the language of the structure and habits, allowing the reader to easily understand the text of the translation to convey meaning, and thus the smooth realization of cross-cultural exchange.
Such as burn the boat (most drastic); greatminds think alike (Great minds think alike); turn a deaf ear to (ignored); a drop in the ocean (drop in the ocean). (D) translation method Translation method refers to the translation, to retain only the meaning of the original forms of expression rather than to retain the original method. When due to cultural differences can not be literally translated, nor synonymous idioms can be borrowed, together with the explanatory text then would lose the essence of the characteristics of idioms, it is best to avoid their cultural background and its meaning can be translated.
If a skeleton in the cupboard (family scandal), driven to revolt (be forced to do something),??????? (frankly speaking), volunteered (to volunteer one’s service). Zhang Ling: Cultural differences and Idioms translation of this approach also applies to those using concrete and plain metaphor to illustrate the more abstract reasoning, and language vivid and witty tag line. Such as the ‘donkey to see libretto – wait and see’ can be translated as wait and see, ‘dog bites Lu Tung-pin, did not know good people’ can be translated to snap and snarl at a kind hearted man.
3, Conclusion English and each has its own cultural imprint colors and cultures between the two there is a large cultural differences. The impact of culture on idiom is multifaceted, non-English-Chinese translation of idioms is not. While the translation of idioms, especially those rich in cultural information, Idioms, and there is no fixed pattern in the end that the method should be adopted according to the context of flexible options.
In addition, the process of translation the translator must not only consider the language of conversion, but also to enhance cultural awareness, from the standpoint of cross-cultural communication, using an appropriate mode of translation, try to eliminate the cross-cultural communication caused by cultural differences communication barriers, to achieve an accurate description of the purpose of a foreign culture. References:  Chen Ding-an. English Rhetoric and Translation [M]. Hong Kong: Commercial Press, 1996.  Ping-hong, Zhang Guoyang. English Idioms and Anglo-American culture, [M].
Beijing: Foreign Language Education and Research Press, 1999.  Hu Wenzhong. Introduction to Intercultural Communication [M]. Beijing: Foreign Language Education and Research Press, 1999.  Fang dream. Translation New Theory and Practice [M]. Qingdao: Qingdao Publishing House, 1999.  FENG Qing-hua. Practical Translation (update) [M]. Shanghai: Shanghai Foreign Language Education Press, 2002.  Sun Hui-jun, ZHENG Qing-Zhu. Translation studies in the cultural shift [J]. Chinese translation, 2000, (05). Reposted elsewhere in the Research Papers Download http://www. hi138. com.