Counseling Models Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 5 April 2016

Counseling Models

Most counseling models make use of the core conditions; empathy, unconditional positive regard and congruence. A. Psychoanalytic Model

Sigmund Freud’s psychoanalytic system is a model of personality development and approach to psychotherapy. Psychoanalytic: The original so called “talking therapy” involves analyzing the root causes of behavior and feelings by exploring the unconscious mind and the conscious mind’s relation to it. Many theories and therapies have evolved from the original Freudian psychoanalysis which utilizes free-association, dreams, and transference, as well other strategies to help the client know the function of their own minds. Traditional analysts have their clients lie on a couch as the therapist takes notes and interprets the client’s thoughts, etc. Many theories and therapies have evolved from the original psychoanalysis, including Hypnotherapy, object-relations, Progoff’s Intensive Journal Therapy, Jungian, and many others. One thing they all have in common is that they deal with unconscious motivation. Usually the duration of therapy is lengthy; however, many modern therapists use psychoanalytic techniques for short term therapies.

Psychoanalytic counseling or Freudian psychology prompts patients to imagine lying on a couch and divulging personal information. This type of counseling relies on patients’ history and an analysis of their thoughts, behavior and feelings. NYU Medical School’s Psychoanalytic Institute holds that psychoanalysis is based on observations of patient behavior and recognition of symptoms and explores how unconscious factors play a role in relationships and behavior patterns. Psychoanalysts provide help to clients through the diagnosis of disorders and the utilization of talk therapy. Clients work through issues with the assistance of a trained counselor. Psychodynamic (psychoanalytic):

Sees childhood as cause of present problems and focuses on exploring past in some depth. Explores transference – displaced feelings from early childhood experienced in adult situations. Uses ‘free association’. Long term.

Psychoanalytic therapy is the model where clients lay down with no eye contact or relationship with the therapist. (Less common these days) Counseling Implications

Some counselors find combined psychosexual and psychosocial perspective a helpful conceptual framework for understanding developmental issues as they appear in therapy. The key needs and developmental tasks, along with the challenges inherent at each stage of life, provide a model for understanding some of the core conflicts clients explore in their therapy sessions. The Therapeutic Process

Therapeutic Goals
Ultimate Goal: To increase adaptive functioning which involves the reduction of symptoms and the resolution of conflicts. The two goals of Freudian Psychoanalytic Therapy are as follows, (1) to make the unconscious conscious and (2) to strengthen the ego so that behavior is based more on reality and less on instinctual cravings or irrational guilt. Successful analysis is believed to result in significant modification of the individual’s personality and character structure. Therapeutic methods are used to bring out the unconscious material. Then childhood experiences are reconstructed, discussed, interpreted and analyzed. It is clear that the process is not limited to solving problems and learning new behaviors. There is also deeper probing into the past to develop the level of self understanding that is assumed to be necessary for a change in character. Therapist’s Function and Role

In classical psychoanalysis, analysts typically assume an anonymous stance, which is sometimes called the “blank screen approach”. They engage in very little self disclosure and maintain a sense of neutrality to foster a transference relationship in which their clients will make projections onto them. Central functions of analysis is to help clients acquire the freedom to love, work and play. Other functions include assisting clients in achieving self awareness, honesty and more effective personal relationships; in dealing with anxiety in a realistic way; and in gaining control over impulsive and irrational behavior. Roles

Establish a working relationship with the client and then do a great deal of listening and interpreting. Empathic attunement to the client facilitates the analysts apprehension and appreciation of the of the client’s intra psychic world. Particular attention is given to the client’s resistances. The analyst listens, learns and decides when to make appropriate interpretations.

A major function of interpretation is to accelerate the process of uncovering unconscious material. The analyst listens for gaps and inconsistencies in the client’s story, infers the meaning of reported dreams and free associations, and remains sensitive to clues concerning the client’s feelings towards the analyst.

Client’s Experience in the Therapy
Clients interested in traditional (or classical) psychoanalysis must be willing to commit themselves to an intensive and long term therapy process. After some face-to-face sessions with the analyst, clients lie on a couch and engage in free association. *Free association allows the client to say whatever comes to mind without self-censorship.

This is known as the ‘fundamental rule’. Clients report their feelings, experiences, associations, memories and fantasies. Lying on the couch encourages deep, uncensored reflections and reduces the stimuli that might interfere with getting in touch with internal conflicts and productions. It reduces clients’ ability to read their analyst’s face for reactions and hence, fosters the projections characteristics of transference. At the same time, the analyst is freed from having to carefully monitor facial cues.

Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures
The therapy is geared more to limited objectives than to restructuring one’s personality The therapist is less likely to use the couch
There are fewer sessions each week
There is more frequent use of supportive interventions such as reassurance, expressions of empathy and support and suggestions There is more emphasis on the here-and-how relationship between therapist and client There is more latitude for therapist self-disclosure without ‘polluting the transference’ Less emphasis is give n to the therapist’s neutrality

There is focus on mutual transference and counter transference enactments The focus is more on pressing practical concerns than on working with fantasy material

Six (6) Basic Techniques of Psychoanalytic Therapy
(1) Maintaining of the Analytic Framework
This refers to a whole range of procedural and stylistic factors such as the analyst’s relative anonymity, maintaining neutrality and objectivity, the regularity and consistency of meeting starting and ending the sessions on time, clarity on fees, and basic boundary issues such as the avoidance of advice giving or imposition of the therapist’s values.

(2) Free Association
It is the central technique in psychoanalytic therapy. In free association, clients are encouraged to say whatever comes to mind, regardless of how painful, silly, trivial, illogical, irrelevant it may seem.

(3) Interpretation
The analyst points out, explains and teaches the client the meanings of behaviors that are manifested in dreams, free association, resistances and the therapeutic relationship itself.

(4) Dream Analysis
This is an important procedure for uncovering unconscious material and giving the client insight into some areas of unresolved problems. During sleep, defenses are lowered and repressed feelings surface. Freud sees dreams as the “royal road to the unconscious”.

2 Levels of Dream Content
Latent Content
Manifest Content

(5) Analysis and Interpretation of Resistance
This is anything that works against the progress of therapy and prevents the client from producing previously unconscious material. Resistance helps the client to see that cancelling appointments, fleeing from therapy prematurely are ways of defending against anxiety.

(6) Analysis and Interpretation of Transference
The client reacts to the therapist as he did to an earlier significant other. This allows the client to experience feelings that would otherwise be inaccessible. Its analysis allows the client to achieve insight into the influence of the past. *Counter transference – is the reaction of the therapist toward the client that may interfere with objectivity. Limitations of Classical Analysis

This approach may not be appropriate for all cultures or socioeconomic groups Deterministic focus does not emphasize current maladaptive behaviors Minimizes role of the environment
Requires subjective interpretation
Relies heavily on client fantasy
Lengthy treatment may not be practical or affordable for many clients

B. Client-centered Model

Person-centered therapy (PCT) is also known as person-centered psychotherapy, person-centered counseling, client-centered therapy and Rogerian psychotherapy. PCT is a form of talk-psychotherapy developed by psychologist Carl Rogers in the 1940s and 1950s.

The ultimate goal of PCT is to provide clients with an opportunity to develop a sense of self wherein they can realize how their attitudes, feelings and behavior are being negatively affected and make an effort to find their true positive potential. The aim is directed towards achieving a greater degree of independence and integration. Two primary goals of person-centered therapy are increased self-esteem and greater openness to experience.

Some of the related changes that this form of therapy seeks to foster in clients include closer agreement between the client’s idealized and actual selves; better self-understanding; lower levels of defensiveness, guilt, and insecurity; more positive and comfortable relationships with others; and an increased capacity to experience and express feelings at the moment they occur. Rogers wanted to assist the clients in their growth process so clients can better cope with problems as they identify them.

In this technique, therapists create a comfortable, non-judgmental environment by demonstrating congruence (genuineness), empathy, and unconditional positive regard toward their clients while using a non-directive approach. This aids clients in finding their own solutions to their problems. It places much of the responsibility for the treatment process on the client, with the therapist taking a nondirective role. Basic Characteristics

In the Person Centered approach the focus is on helping the client discover more appropriate behavior by developing self-awareness & ways to fully “encounter reality”. Through this encounter the client gains insight of themselves & the world. Core Conditions

Rogers (1957; 1959) stated that there are six necessary and sufficient conditions required for therapeutic change:

1. Therapist-Client Psychological Contact: a relationship between client and therapist must exist, and it must be a relationship in which each person’s perception of the other is important.

2. Client in-congruence: that in-congruence exists between the client’s experience and awareness.

3. Therapist Congruence or Genuineness: the therapist is congruent within the therapeutic relationship. The therapist is deeply involved him or herself – they are not “acting” – and they can draw on their own experiences (self-disclosure) to facilitate the relationship.

4. Therapist Unconditional Positive Regard (UPR): the therapist accepts the client unconditionally, without judgment, disapproval or approval. This facilitates increased self-regard in the client, as they can begin to become aware of experiences in which their view of self-worth was distorted by others.

5. Therapist Empathic understanding: the therapist experiences an empathic understanding of the client’s internal frame of reference. Accurate empathy on the part of the therapist helps the client believe the therapist’s unconditional love for them.

6. Client
Perception: that the client perceives, to at least a minimal degree, the therapist’s UPR and empathic understanding.

Processes
Rogers asserted that the most important factor in successful therapy is the relational climate created by the therapist’s attitude to their client. He specified three interrelated core conditions: 1. Congruence

The willingness to transparently relate to clients without hiding behind a professional or personal facade. genuineness or realness The helper does not deny his or her own feelings: the opposite of hiding behind a professional mask. “I find that I am closest to my inner, intuitive self,when I am somehow in touch with the unknown in me, when perhaps I am in a slightly altered state of consciousness…Then simply my presence is releasing and helpful.” (Rogers) 2. Unconditional Positive Regard

The therapist offers an acceptance and prizing for their client for who he or she is without conveying disapproving feelings, actions or characteristics and demonstrating a willingness to attentively listen without interruption, judgment or giving advice. Unconditional positive regard acceptance and caring, but not Approval of all behavior

Related Terms:
Acceptance of the other’s reality with kindness
Non-possessive caring
Prizing
Non-judgmental attitude
3. Empathy
The therapist communicates their desire to understand and appreciate their client’s perspective. Accurate empathic understanding – an ability to deeply grasp the client’s subjective world Helper attitudes are more important than knowledge

Empathy is a consistent, unflagging appreciation of the experience of the other. It is active attention to the feelings of the client
It involves warmth and genuineness

The Therapist

Rogers believed that a therapist who embodies these three critical attitudes will help liberate their client to more confidently express their true feelings without fear of judgment. To achieve this, the client-centered therapist carefully avoids directly challenging their client’s way of communicating themselves in the session in order to enable a deeper exploration of the issues most intimate to them and free from external referencing. Rogers was not prescriptive in telling his clients what to do, but believed that the answers to the patients’ questions were within the patient and not the therapist. Accordingly the therapists’ role was to create a facilitative, empathic environment wherein the patient could discover for him or herself the answers.

Therapists are used as instruments of change but are not to direct the change in client Therapist helps develop an environment in which the client can grow Through attitudes of genuine caring, respect, and understanding the client is able to let their defenses down & become more self aware Therapist reflects client’s view of the world (Phenomenological approach) The Therapist must be:

Congruent able to approach client with unconditional positive regard demonstrate accurate understanding and empathy
Focuses on the quality of the therapeutic relationship
Serves as a model of a human being struggling toward greater realness is genuine integrated, and authentic, without a false front Can openly express feelings & attitudes that are present in the relationship with the client Therapeutic Process

Main focus is on the person & not on the person’s problems
This allows the client to reconnect with him/her. Client is assisted in therapy so that they can deal with current problems as well as problems that develop in the future Focuses on helping a person become aware of their true self & develop congruency Client’s Experience

Through therapy client is able to let down his/her defenses & become more true to him/her selves They gain perception into themselves, which allows them to better understand & accept others Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures

One of the major contributions of Rogers in the counseling field is the notion that the quality of the therapeutic relationship, as opposed administering techniques, is the primary agent of growth in the client. The therapist’s ability to establish a strong connection with the clients is the critical factor determining successful counseling outcomes. The person-centered philosophy is based on the assumption that clients have the resourcefulness for positive movement without the counselor assuming an active, directive or problem-solving role. What is essential for clients’ progress is the therapist’s presence, being completely attentive to, and immersed in the client as well as in the client’s expressed concerns. In a study conducted in the 1990s, it was revealed that the effectiveness of person-centered therapy with a wide range of client problems including anxiety disorders, alcoholism, psychosomatic problems, agoraphobia, interpersonal difficulties, depression, cancer and personality disorders. Moreover, an effective therapy is based on the client-therapist relationship in combination with the inner and external resources of the client.

Learning to listen with acceptance to oneself is a valuable life skill that enables individuals to be their own therapists. The basic concepts are straight forward and easy to comprehend, and they encourage locating power in the person rather than fostering an authoritarian structure in which control and power are denied to the person. The person-centered approach is especially applicable in crisis intervention such as an unwanted pregnancy, an illness, a disastrous event, or the loss of a loved one. When people are in crisis, one of the first steps is to give them an opportunity to fully express themselves. Communicating a deep sense of understanding should always precede other more problem-solving interventions.

C. Rational Emotive Model
Albert Ellis founded rational therapy in the mid-1950s and was one of the first therapists to emphasize the influential role of cognition in behavior. In 1960s, he changed the name to Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), because of his contention that the model had always stressed the reciprocal interactions among cognition, emotion and behavior. Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT), previously called rational therapy and rational emotive therapy, is a comprehensive, active-directive, philosophically and empirically based psychotherapy which focuses on resolving emotional and behavioral problems and disturbances and enabling people to lead happier and more fulfilling lives. REBT is based on the assumption that we are not disturbed solely by out early or later environments but we have strong inclinations to disturb ourselves consciously and unconsciously. We do this largely by taking our goals and values, which we mainly learn from our families and culture, and changing them into absolute “shoulds”, “oughts” and “musts”.

REBT therapists employ active/directive techniques such as teaching, suggestion, persuasion, and homework assignments and they challenge clients to substitute a rational belief system for an irrational one. It emphasizes the therapist’s ability and willingness to challenge, confront, and convince the members to practice activities that will lead to constructive changes in thinking and behaving. The approach stresses action – doing something about the insights one gains in the therapy. ORIGINS OF EMOTIONAL DISTURBANCE

A central concept of REBT is the role that absolutist “shoulds,” “oughts,” and “musts” play when people become and remain emotionally disturbed. We forcefully, rigidly, and emotionally subscribe to many grandiose “musts” that result in our needlessly disturbing ourselves. According to Ellis (2001a, 2001b), feelings of anxiety, depression, hurt, shame, rage, and guilt are largely initiated and perpetuated by a belief system based on irrational ideas that were uncritically embraced, often during early childhood. In addition to taking on dysfunctional beliefs from others, Ellis stresses that we also invent “musts” on our own. Ellis (1994, 1997; Ellis & Dryden, 2007; Ellis & Harper, 1997) contends that most of our dysfunctional beliefs can be reduced to three main forms of “musturbation”: 1. “I absolutely must do well and be approved of by significant others.

I must win their approval or else I am an inadequate, worthless person.” 2. “You must under all conditions and at all times treat me considerately, kindly, lovingly, and fairly. If you don’t, you are no damned good and are a rotten person.” 3. “Conditions under which I live absolutely must be comfortable so that I can get what I want without too much effort. If not, it is awful; I can’t stand it and life is no good.” Rational emotive behavior therapy is grounded on existential principles in many respects. Although parents and society play a significant role in contributing to our emotional disturbance, we do not need to be victims of this indoctrination that takes place in our early years. We may not have had the resources during childhood to challenge parental and societal messages. As psychological adults now, however, we can become aware of how adhering to negative and destructive beliefs actually hampers our efforts to live fully, and we are also in a position to modify these beliefs. THE A-B-C THEORY

The A-B-C theory of personality and emotional disturbance is central to REBT theory and practice. The A-B-C theory maintains that when we have an emotional reaction at point C (the emotional Consequence), after some Activating event that occurred at point A, it is not the event itself (A) that causes the emotional state (C), although it may contribute to it. It is the Belief system (B), or the beliefs that we have about the event, that mainly creates C. For example, if you feel depressed (C) over not getting a promotion at work (A), it is not the fact that you weren’t promoted that causes your depression; it is your belief (B) about the event. By believing that you absolutely should have been promoted and that not receiving it means that you are a failure, you “construct” the emotional consequence of feeling depressed.

Thus, we are largely responsible for creating our own emotional disturbances through the beliefs we associate with the events of our lives Ellis (2011) maintains that we have the capacity to significantly change our cognitions, emotions, and behaviors. We can best accomplish this goal by avoiding preoccupying ourselves with the activating events at A and by acknowledging the futility of dwelling endlessly on the emotional consequences at C. We can choose to examine, challenge, modify, and uproot B—the irrational beliefs we hold about the activating events at A. GOALS OF A REBT GROUP

The basic goal of REBT is to help clients replace rigid demands with flexible preferences. According to Ellis (2001b; 2011), two of the main goals of REBT are to assist clients in the process of achieving unconditional self-acceptance (USA) and unconditional other acceptance (UOA), and to see how these are interrelated. To the degree that group members are able to accept themselves, they are able to accept others. The process of REBT involves a collaborative effort on the part of both the group leader and the members in choosing realistic and self enhancing outcome goals. The therapist’s task is to help group participants to differentiate between realistic and unrealistic goals and self-defeating and self-enhancing goals (Dryden, 2007). Further goals are to teach members how to change their dysfunctional emotions and behaviors into healthy ones and to cope with almost any unfortunate event that may arise in their lives (Ellis, 2001b).

REBT aims at providing group members with tools for experiencing healthy emotions (such as sadness and concern) about negative activating events rather than unhealthy emotions (such as depression and anxiety) about these events so that they can live richer and more satisfying lives. To accomplish this basic objective, group members learn practical ways to identify their underlying irrational beliefs, to critically evaluate such beliefs, and to replace them with rational beliefs. Basically, group members are taught that they are largely responsible for their own emotional reactions; that they can minimize their emotional disturbances by paying attention to their self-verbalizations and by changing their irrational beliefs; and that if they acquire a new and more realistic philosophy, they can cope effectively with most of the unfortunate events in their lives. Although the therapeutic goals of REBT are essentially the same for both individual and group therapy, the two differ in some of the specific methods and techniques employed, as you will see in the discussion that follows.

CONFRONTING IRRATIONAL BELIEFS
REBT group leaders begin by teaching group members the A-B-C theory. When they have come to see how their irrational beliefs are contributing to their emotional and behavioral disturbances, they are ready to Dispute (D) these beliefs. D represents the application of scientific principles to challenge self-defeating philosophies and to dispose of unrealistic and unverifiable hypotheses. Cognitive restructuring, a central technique of cognitive therapy, teaches people how to make themselves less disturbed (Ellis, 2003). One of the most effective methods of helping people reduce their emotional disturbances is to show them how to actively and forcefully dispute these irrational beliefs until they surrender them. This process of disputation involves three other Ds:

(1) Detecting irrational beliefs and seeing that they are illogical and unrealistic,

(2) Debating these irrational beliefs and showing oneself how they are unsupported by evidence, and (3) discriminating between irrational thinking and rational thinking (Ellis, 1994, 1996). After D comes E, or the Effect of disputing—the relinquishing of self destructive ideologies, the acquisition of effective new beliefs, and a greater acceptance of oneself, of others, and of the inevitable frustrations of everyday life. This new philosophy of life has, of course, a practical side—a concrete E, if you wish. In the previous example, E would translate into a rational statement such as this: “I’d like to have gotten the job, but there is no reason I have to get what I want. It is unfortunate that I did not get the job, but it is not terrible.”

According to REBT theory, the ultimate desired result is that the person experiences a healthy negative emotion, in this case, disappointment and sadness, rather than depression.Group members learn to separate their rational (or functional) beliefs from their irrational (or dysfunctional) beliefs and to understand the origins of their emotional disturbances as well as those of other members. Participants are taught the many ways in which they can (1) free themselves of their irrational life philosophy so that they can function more effectively as an individual and as a relational being and (2) learn more appropriate ways of responding so that they won’t needlessly feel disturbed about the realities of living. The group members help and support one another in these learning endeavors. The Therapeutic Process

GOALS OF A REBT GROUP
The basic goal of REBT is to help clients replace rigid demands with flexible preferences. According to Ellis (2001b; 2011), two of the main goals of REBT are to assist clients in the process of achieving unconditional self-acceptance (USA) and unconditional other acceptance (UOA), and to see how these are interrelated. To the degree that group members are able to accept themselves, they are able to accept others. The process of REBT involves a collaborative effort on the part of both the group leader and the members in choosing realistic and self enhancing outcome goals. The therapist’s task is to help group participants to differentiate between realistic and unrealistic goals and self-defeating and self-enhancing goals (Dryden, 2007). Further goals are to teach members how to change their dysfunctional emotions and behaviors into healthy ones and to cope with almost any unfortunate event that may arise in their lives (Ellis, 2001b). REBT aims at providing group members with tools for experiencing healthy emotions (such as sadness and concern) about negative activating events rather than unhealthy emotions (such as depression and anxiety) about these events so that they can live richer and more satisfying lives.

To accomplish this basic objective, group members learn practical ways to identify their underlying irrational beliefs, to critically evaluate such beliefs, and to replace them with rational beliefs. Basically, group members are taught that they are largely responsible for their own emotional reactions; that they can minimize their emotional disturbances by paying attention to their self-verbalizations and by changing their irrational beliefs; and that if they acquire a new and more realistic philosophy, they can cope effectively with most of the unfortunate events in their lives. Although the therapeutic goals of REBT are essentially the same for both individual and group therapy, the two differ in some of the specific methods and techniques employed, as you will see in the discussion that follows. Role and Functions of the Counselor

The therapeutic activities of an REBT group are carried out with a central purpose: to help participants internalize a rational philosophy of life, just as they internalized a set of dogmatic and extreme beliefs derived from their sociocultural environment and from their own invention. In working toward this ultimate aim, the group leader has several specific functions and tasks. The first task is to show group members how they have largely created their own emotional and behavioral disturbances. The leader helps group members to identify and challenge the irrational beliefs they originally unquestioningly accepted, demonstrates how they are continuing to indoctrinate themselves with these beliefs, and teaches them how to modify their thinking by developing rational alternative beliefs. It is the group leader’s task to teach members how to stop the vicious circle of the self-blaming and other-blaming process. REBT assumes that people’s irrational beliefs are so deeply ingrained that they will not change easily. Thus, to bring about a significant cognitive change, leaders employ a variety of active cognitive and emotive techniques (Ellis, 1996, 2001b; Ellis & Dryden, 2007).

REBT group practitioners favor interventions such as questioning, confronting, negotiating homework assignments, and helping members experiment with new ways of thinking, feeling, and doing. REBT group leaders are active in teaching the theoretical model, proposing methods of coping, and teaching members strategies for testing hypotheses and solutions. REBT group leaders assume the role of a psychological educator, and they tend to avoid relating too closely to their members and thus avoid having them increase their dependency tendencies. They provide unconditional acceptance rather than warmth and approval (Dryden, 2009b). However, REBT group practitioners demonstrate respect for the members of their groups and also tend to be collaborative, encouraging, supportive, and mentoring. REBT practitioners employ a directive role in encouraging members to commit themselves to practicing in everyday situations what they are learning in the group sessions.

They view what goes on during the group as important, but they realize that the hard work between sessions and after therapy is terminated is even more crucial. The group context provides members with tools they can use to become self-reliant and to accept themselves unconditionally as they encounter new problems in daily living.

Application: Therapeutic Techniques and Procedures
Ellis originally developed REBT to try to make psychotherapy shorter and more efficient than most other systems of therapy; hence, it is intrinsically a brief therapy. As applied to groups, REBT mainly employs interventions that teach group members how to tackle practical problems of living in a brief and efficient way (Ellis, 2001b). From the origin of the approach, REBT has utilized a wide range of cognitive, emotive, and behavioral methods with most clients. Like other cognitive behavioral therapies, REBT blends techniques to change clients’ patterns of thinking, feeling, and acting.

It is an integrative therapy, selectively adapting various methods that are also used in existential, humanistic, phenomenologically oriented therapeutic approaches, but the emphasis is on the cognitive and behavioral dimensions (Ellis, 2001b). REBT focuses on specifi c techniques for changing a client’s self-defeating thoughts in concrete situations. In addition to modifying beliefs, this approach helps group members see how their beliefs influence what they feel and what they do; thus, there is also a concern for changing feelings and behaviors that flow from rigid and extreme beliefs. This model aims to minimize symptoms by bringing about a profound change in philosophy. REBT practitioners are flexible and creative in their use of methods and tailor their techniques to the unique needs of group members (Dryden, 2007)

References

A. Internet-Based

http://www.allaboutcounseling.com/counseling_approaches.htm
http://www.ehow.com/list_7162754_psychological-counseling-techniques.html#ixzz2cmnFA0bd http://www.ukessays.com/essays/psychology/psychoanalytic-theory-theories-of-counseling-and psychotherapy-psychology-essay.php#ixzz2cmqlANAb http://www.minddisorders.com/Ob-Ps/Person-centered-therapy.html#b#ixzz2dzABrENS

B. Books

Corey, G. (2012). Counseling and Psychotherapy: Theory and Practice Second Edition. Cengage Learning, Philippines.

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