Constructivism and/or social constructionism can be reflected particularly to Alexander Wendt. In his article, “Anarchy is What States Make of It: the Social Construction of Power Politics” in 1992, laid the fundamental theoretical groundwork for demanding what he believed to be a flaw between neo-realist’s and neo-liberal institutionalist’s; i. e. commitment to a form of materialism. Alexander Wendt opened the way for international relations scholars to pursue work in a wide range of issues from a constructivist perspective by attempting to show that even a core realist concept (e. . “power politics”) is socially constructed—that is, not given by nature. Hence, is capable of being transformed by human practice.
Constructivism principally describes how many core aspects of international relations are. Socially constructed describes constructivism wherein they are given their form by means of ongoing procedures of social practice and communication. Wendt identifies two acknowledged fundamental principles of Constructivism; (1) that the structures of human association are determined primarily by shared ideas rather than material forces, and (2) that the identities and interests of purposive actors are constructed by these shared ideas rather than given by nature” . In the formative work of Wendt, constructivism defies the supposition of Neorealist being Structuralist’s by means of showing that the contributory powers attributed to ‘Structure’ are not given, but will depend in which Structure is constructed through social practice.
Regardless of the nature, culture and traditions, religion, society, constructivism does not foresee whether two countries will be allies or enemies, whether they will recognize each other’s power, will have dynastic ties, and will be revisionist or status quo powers. In a constructivist’s perspective, international laws created were based on the diversity of the races, culture, religion, society, traditions and political power of each of the member countries.
In example, the United Nations addresses projects of food security, poverty, and other projects that are for humanitarian purposes. Ideas generated from this kind of institution tend to help countries that were included in the third world countries or what we commonly called the developing countries. With regards to the international relations, international laws were general or universal in terms of what the participating countries see as good, basic to most of the countries, humane, and will not tolerate violence to the whole.
Constructivist’s disallows anarchy, of the actions of the countries and deflects materialism. International laws and institutions craft the needed room for their interests, i. e. to take a central place in theorizing international relations. Today, countries are not simply directed by the imperatives of a self-help system but their interests become important in analyzing how they will be of help to other countries that needed them and to maintain peace at all times.
As of the nature of the international system, Constructivists see our interests being not objectively grounded in material forces but the result of ideas and the social construction of such ideas. To summarize, the constructivism philosophy with regards to internal relations, the role of international laws and institutions, reflects to a social order, leadership to any system, thus, leading to foundation of international laws and institutions that are general in nature, thus, leading to better international relations of each of the countries and/or actors.
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 23 September 2016
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