Culture and diversity are factors which influence the operations and functionality of many organisations in modern societies. The importance is on the rise possibly why management of a diverse team is one of the major strategies which are developed and implemented in many organisations today hoping that the society approves and also anticipating positive performance returns. This is evident as researchers show great interest on the topic. Many analyses have been made by scholars concerning various factors which can affect the proper functioning of a team and specifically focusing on how cultural diversity can impact team performance (Earley and Mosakowski, 2000; Gibson, 1999; Milliken and Martins, 1996; Stahl et al.
, 2010; Thomas, 1999; Zhou and Shi, 2011). Team performance is a multidimensional construct that incorporates a few result estimates, for example, quantitative generation, subjective group results, and group union (Horwitz & Horwitz, 2007). One key positive contention remains that different viewpoints and encounters support innovativeness, flexibility, development and more excellent issue arrangements (McLeod et al., 1996: 257; Wiersema and Bantel, 1992).
At the group and work bunch level, the beneficial outcomes of assorted variety are encouraged by different components; including viable initiative and work bunch social ID (Homan et al., 2007; Kearney and Gebert, 2009). Claims that diversity is beneficial and its influence which is determined by what tasks is to be performed, the degree of communication issues and the level of benefits derived from differences are accepted by most theoretical literature (Lazear, 1999). There is evidence that the combination of players with different cultural backgrounds may have a positive effect on team performance (Andresen and Altmann, 2006; Wulf and Hungenberg, 2006).
Furthermore, Cognitive diversity in the group setting is characterized as how much, colleagues vary regarding mastery, encounters, and points of view (Miller et al., 1998). Using the theoretical arguments of the cognitive diversity hypothesis, a few specialists have contended that group decent variety positively affects execution due to extraordinary psychological ascribes that individuals bring to the group (Cox & Blake, 1991; Hambrick, Cho, & Chen, 1996). Eventually, cognitive diversity among heterogeneous individuals advances creativity, innovation, and problem solving, and thus results in superior performance relative to cognitively homogeneous teams.
Most football clubs these days are recruiting foreign players. The management and officials are hopeful to benefit from a diverse pool of talent because everyone brings with them different strength, quality, style and skill. This can solely depend on the cultural backgrounds which vary widely. Education in football is noticeably concentrated on qualifications (Lanfranchi and Taylor, 2001; Theweleit, 2009). A football team may have players of equal talents yet there’s a bonus to the team when players are different in the way they interpret problems or use their talents to provide solution to a problem. This is obvious as every single player may have a different upbringing, different exposure in terms of training methods, the availability of different training facilities and various styles of play. Brazilians are renowned for being good at dribbling, attacking and an entertaining style of play. German players are known for being very strong, disciplined and direct in their style of play (Müller, 2009). These are all nation – specific traits which if combined in a team, the performance of that team can certainly be better. Previous studies have also shown that the positive effects of diversity are highly associated with high levels of outcome interdependence (Schippers, Den Hartog, Koopman, & Wienk, 2003), task interdependence (Jehn, Northcraft, & Neale, 1999), collective team identification (Van der Vegt & Bunderson, 2005), and complex tasks (Pelled, Eisenhardt, & Xin, 1999). Concerning personal attitudes, individuals with positive attitudes toward diverse groups are more likely to enjoy working with and perform more effectively in diverse teams (van Knippenberg & Haslam, 2003; van Knippenberg & Schippers, 2007). With respect to personality factors, positive attitudes toward diverse workgroups were positively associated with the traits of extraversion, agreeableness, and openness to experience, (van der Zee & van Oudenhoven, 2000). A team like Real Madrid in Spain won three consecutive champions league trophies which is one of the most prestigious competitions in football with a multi-cultural team. This happened in 2016, 2017 and 2018 to set a world record with a French manager (Zinedine Zidane), a Puerto Rican goalkeeper (Kaylor Navas), Croatian midfielder (Luka Modric), an Irish winger (Gareth Bale) and Brazilian defender (Marcelo).
Furthermore, the age of the coach and the duration at a football team has a positive significant effect on the sporting success of the team (Wulf and Hungenberg 2006). This can be explained simply by pointing that the coach may have gained a lot of experiences at the team. He or she may have also mastered the tactics or weaknesses of the opponents to implement counter- tactics which are of advantage to their own team. A long serving coach also knows how to guide recruit by educating them on the team structure, ambition and objectives. Arsene Wenger spent 22 years at Arsenal football club. During this time, he managed 1,235 games, 707 of these games were won and 17 trophies (transfermarkt.com, 2019). What is more, culturally diverse teams are more likely to perform successfully on well-defined tasks (Maznevski and Chudoba, 2000; Stewart, 2006; Stahl et al., 2009). This means that even in football, when the goals and objectives are clearly stated, which could either be defend tightly, to attack fiercely or to shoot from long distances depending on the team situation, a group which has individuals from many different backgrounds will likely succeed. Task interdependence is defined as the degree to which completing tasks requires the interaction of team members (Shea & Guzzo, 1987; Stewart & Barrick, 2000). Several researchers have considered that the level of task interdependence is a contingency variable that either intensifies or mitigates the effects of other variables in teams (Burke et al., 2006; Duffy, Shaw, & Stark, 2000; Stewart & Barrick, 2000).