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Privacy preserving authentication for RFID data using unclonable functions

Paper type: Essay
Pages: 12 (2956 words)
Categories: Computer, Computer security, Data, Technology
Downloads: 34
Views: 5

Abstract:

Radio Frequency Identifcation (RFID) has been considered one of the imperative requirements for implementation of Internet-of-Things applications. It helps to solve the identi?cation issues of the things in a cost-effective manner, but RFID systems suffer from various security and privacy issues. To solve those issues for RFID systems a cryptographic primitive, called Unclonable Functions(UFs), which can ensure a tamper-evident feature has been used for privacy and security, it is used to address the problem of privacy preservation with the resistance of DoS attacks in a practical way, the existing schemes need to rely on exhaustive search operations to identify a tag, and also suffer from several security and privacy related issues and a tag needs to store some security credentials (e.

g., secret shared keys), which may cause several issues such as loss of forward and backward secrecy and large storage costs. RFID data are considered as the resource constrained device s, accordingly it is always feasible to use lightweight cryptographic primitives in designing anonymous authentication protocol for RFID system.

Therefore, most of the RFID authentication protocols use symmetric-key system such as the hash function. The Unclonable Functions (UFs) are the result of random physical verifications to make output unique. The Unclonable Functions (UFs) are basically one-way function that cannot be duplicated thus the Unclonable Functions (UFs) outputs are difficult to predict but easy to evaluate.

Keywords Unclonable Functions (UFs); Denial of Service (DoS)

Literature Review:

P. Gope and T. Hwang [3] have described how IoT allows people and objects in the physical world as well as data and virtual environments to interact with each other so as to create smart environments, such as smart transport systems, smart cities, smart health, and so on for an anonymous authentication scheme, which can ensure some of the notable properties, such as sensor anonymity, sensor untraceability resistance to replay attacks, cloning attacks, and so on. IP connectivity does not mean that every sensor node should be directly connected to the Internet. IoT includes a signi?cant number sort of sensors that empower a signi?cant number of aged people to enjoy the modern health care services anywhere, anytime and one of the key features of the RFID system is that a tag can be interrogated by a reader without line-of-sight contact thus the RFID technology poses a great deal of security threats related to tag user’s privacy. User authentication in wireless sensor networks (WSN) is a critical security issue due to their unattended and hostile deployment in the ?eld where Wireless sensor networks (WSN)are typically deployed in an unattended environment, where the legitimate users can login to the network and access data as and when demanded. Since the sensor nodes are equipped with limited computing power, storage, and communication modules, authenticating remote users in such resource-constrained environment is a paramount security concern. Until now, impressive efforts have been made for designing authentication schemes with user anonymity by using only the lightweight cryptographic primitives, such as symmetric key encryption/decryption and hash functions.

T. Hwang et al. [4] have described User authentication in wireless sensor networks (WSN) is a critical security issue due to their unattended and hostile deployment. Since the sensor nodes are equipped with limited computing power, storage, and communication modules, authenticating remote users in such resource-constrained environment is a paramount security concern and propose a realistic authentication protocol for sensor networks, which can ensure various imperative security properties. In many sensors based real-time applications, a user needs to directly access the real-time data from sensor node. In this, before offering such access, the legitimacy of the user is required to be veri?ed through a secure authentication scheme and protect from forward/backward secrecy attack.

G. Suh and S. Devadas [7] have described Physically Unclonable Functions (PUFs) are innovative circuit primitives that extract secrets from physical characteristics of integrated circuits (ICs). Multiple bits can be obtained by either duplicate the circuit or use different challenges Each challenge selects a unique pair of delay paths. The Invasive attacks are likely to change the data which are been stored in the database. The ?rst symmetric-key privacy preserving authentication protocol for RFID systems with constant-time identi?cation. Instead of increasing communication overhead, the existence of a large storage device in RFID systems, the database, is utilized for improving the time ef?ciency of tag identi?cation.

J. Lee et al. [5] have proposed how tags are formed by a set of distributed sensor nodes with sensing computation, and wireless communication capabilities. Most of such protocols are vulnerable to DoS attacks, which are occurred due to the loss of synchronization between the participants. An external user can directly access the real-time data from backend server node. Most of such protocols are vulnerable to DoS attacks, which are occurred due to the loss of synchronization between the participants. Furthermore, to rebuilt synchronization between the participants, hence it compromises unlink-ability property.

M. Asadpour and M. T. Dashti [1] have described how most privacy-preserving protocols require the reader to search all tags in the system in order to identify a single tag, it requires a large communication overhead over the fragile wireless channel. The existence of a largest or age device in RFID systems, the database is utilized for improving the time efficiency of tag identification. There is no user’s privacy by RFID tags, calling for the delay or even the abandonment of their deployment occurs.

Da-Zhi Sun and Yi Mu[2] have proposed an anonymous authentication scheme, which can ensure some of the notable properties, such as sensor anonymity, sensor untraceability, resistance to replay attacks, cloning attacks, and so on. The authentication scheme will be useful in many distributed IoT applications (such as radio-frequency identi?cation-based IoT system, Biosensor-based IoT healthcare system, and so on), where the privacy of the sensor movement is greatly desirable.

A new one-time password scheme using the smart card based on the bilinear pairings. By generating temporary identity, our scheme can provide anonymity in authentication process to protect the users from privacy. Based on the Computational Dif?e-Hellman Problem, we show that the proposed scheme is secure against forgery attack and ID attack under the random oracle model.

Natasa Zivic et al. [6] have proposed a novel algorithm which combines bit-stuf?ng with concatenated codes. The channel decoding is used as a mandatory part of a code concatenation, because of the soft or reliability values at its output. Reliability values of stuffed bits enable exceptional coding gain when used in a scope of concatenated codes and lot of possibility of combining with different coding schemes for various communication purposes, especially in video and audio communications where it presents a decoding algorithm by using bit-stuf?ng and simulation results.

Introduction:

Radio Frequency Identi?cation (RFID) has been considered one of the imperative requirements for implementation of Internet-of-Things applications. It helps to solve the identi?cation issues of the things in a cost-effective manner, but RFID systems suffer from various security and privacy issues. To solve those issues for RFID systems, many schemes have been recently proposed by using the cryptographic primitive, called Unclonable Functions (UFs), which can ensure a tamper-evident feature. It is used to address the problem of privacy preservation with the resistance of DoS attacks in a practical way, the existing schemes need to rely on exhaustive search operations to identify a tag, and also suffer from several security and privacy related issues and a tag needs to store some security credentials (e.g., secret shared keys), which may cause several issues such as loss of forward and backward secrecy and large storage costs. To prevent the tag from cloning, Unclonable Functions (UFs) have been proposed. In each Unclonable Functions (UFs) enabled tag, the responses of Unclonable Function depend on the structural disorder that cannot be cloned or reproduced. Due to the inherent weaknesses of underlying wireless radio communication, RFID systems are plagued with a wide variety of security and privacy threats. Low-cost RFID tags are generally susceptible to attacks. Since there are very low resources available on RFID tags, public-key cryptography is generally considered too complicated. Once a secret key is compromised, eavesdropping and attacks become possible hence symmetric-key cryptography has been used.

EXISTING METHOD:

UFs depend on the uniqueness of their physical microstructure. This microstructure depends on random physical factors introduced during manufacturing. These factors are unpredictable and uncontrollable, which makes it virtually impossible to duplicate or clone the structure.

A major drawback of RFID data is the lack of security. Keeping in mind the example of a simple key-card, which is used for human access control. The card is equipped with the RFID data, which contains sensitive information that could be read out by an attacker(eavesdropping). It would be conceivable to clone the cards probably even without the notice of the card owner. This is the point where Unclonable Functions (UFs) technology comes into tag for the privacy and security of data. Unclonable Functions are able to produce in tag which do not need to store a single bit of information locally in the memory and to prevent from the exhaustive search operation in the backend server. The Unclonable Functions itself acts as the key and ensures access. In order to improve the security Unclonable Functions based method is been used and to reduce the attacks.

Disadvantage:

Exhaustive search operations to identify the tag in the backend server. Cloning of tag occurs.

PROPOSED METHOD:

The proposed Unclonable Functions (UFs) is to prevent the tag from cloning, Unclonable Functions (UFs) has been used to avoid the duplication of the data. In each Unclonable Functions (UFs) enabled tag, the responses of Unclonable Function depend on the structural disorder that cannot be cloned or reproduced. It is to solve the identi?cation issues of the tags in a cost-effective manner, and to prevent from various security and privacy issues like cloning the data and to prevent the data from the Denial of Services (DoS) attack.

MODULE DESCRIPTION:

The main objective of the project is to solve the identi?cation issues of the tags in a cost-effective manner, and to prevent from various security and privacy issues like cloning the data and to prevent the data from the Denial of Service(DOS) attack.

Challenge Response Pair:

Challenge Response Protocol is password authentication, where the challenge is asking for the password and the valid response is the correct password. Clearly an adversary who can eavesdrop on a password authentication can then authenticate itself in the same way. One solution is to issue multiple passwords, each of them marked with an identi?er.

The veri?er can ask for any of the passwords, and the prover must have that correct password for that identi?er. Assuming that the passwords are chosen independently, an adversary who intercepts one challenge response message pair has no clues to help with a different challenge at a different time.

Unclonable Functions:

Using Unclonable Functions (UFs) in a RFID on noisy environment make tag reader and backend server to communicate with high security using cryptographic primitives and to avoid to loss of information to the attacker. The tag has relatively enough pseudo identities to limit the failure for reloading new set of un-linkable pseudo identities and temporary identity. Unclonable Function can support a large number of Challenge Response Pairs. As a result, a strong Unclonable Function can be authenticated directly without using any cryptographic hardware.

Large enough Challenge Response space such that an adversary cannot enumerate all CRPs and clone the bits. Responses stale for multiple readings and an adversary cannot predict the response to a new randomly chosen challenge using nonce, where it is not feasible to make two UFs with the same responses.

Authentication Protocol:

A server authenticating a client include the server access to Unclonable Function and generates a table of CRPs where the pairs are stored in database of Backend Server. Unclonable Function is given to the client side, The client submits a request to the server to authenticate. Server picks a known CRP and submits the challenge to the client and the client runs the challenge on the Unclonable Function, which return the response to the server and Server checks to see that the response is correct and marks the CRP as used or unused.

Bit Stuffing:

Bit Stuf?ng is the position where the new bits are stuffed is communicated to the receiving end of the data link. The receiver removes the extra bits to return the bit streams to their original bit rate. This is used when a communication protocol requires a ?xed frame size. Bits are inserted to make the frame size equal to the de?ned frame size. Bit stuf?ng also works to limit the number of consecutive bits of the same value included in the transmitted data for run-length coding. Using bit stuf?ng, sets of bits beginning with the number one are stuffed into streams of zeros at speci?c intervals.

Digital Access Authentication Using Nonce:

A nonce is an arbitrary number that can be used just once. It is similar in spirit to a nonce word, hence the name. It is often a random or pseudo-random number issued in an authentication protocol to ensure that old communications cannot be reused in replay attacks.

Error Correction

The security of a strong Unclonable Function depends on several factors of error correction which is dif?culty for the measurement of Unclonable Functions internal parameters and dif?culty for manufacturing clones and of predicting Unclonable Functions behaviour based on past CRPs. Hamming code is a set of error-correction codes that can be used to detect and correct the errors that can occur when the data is moved or stored from the sender to the receiver. Redundant bits are extra binary bits that are generated and added to the information-carrying bits of data transfer to ensure that no bits were lost during the data transfer using the hamming distance for Error Correction

d=min d(x,y): x,y?c, x6= y.

Denial of Service attack

Denial-Of-Service (DoS) attack occurs when multiple systems flood the resources of a targeted system, usually with one or more web servers. Such an attack is often the result of cloning of bits in the backend server.

Evaluating the output:

CHALLENGE RESPONSE PAIR AUTHENTICATION

The challenge Response Pair is of the client sends the request to the Server and the Server provides the valid reply to the client for the authentication.

BIT STUFFING

In Bit Stuf?ng the new bits are stuffed is communicated to the receiving end of the datalink. The receiver removes the extra bits to return the bit streams to their original bit rate. Synchronous transmission of information. Add parity data bits to message parity bit.

ERROR DETECTION

Hamming code is a set of error-correction codes that can be used to detect and correct the errors that can occur when the data is moved or stored from the sender to the receiver. Redundant bits are extra binary bits that are generated and added to the information-carrying bits of data transfer to ensure that no bits were lost during the data transfer.

NONCE

A nonce is an arbitrary number that can be used just once. It is similar in spirit to an once word, hence the name. It is often a random or pseudo-random number issued in an authentication protocol to ensure that old communications cannot be reused in replay attacks.

SEARCH ANALYSIS

The Analysis of Loop is to check how many times the tag and server checks the database before providing the authentication to the RFID user.

DENIAL OF SERVICE ATTACK:

A Denial of Service attack is the broad concept of an RFID system failure that is associated with an attack. These attacks are usually physical attacks like jamming the system with noise interference, blocking radio signals, or even removing or disabling RFID tags.

CONCLUSION:

The security for the RFID data has been implemented by using the Unclonable Functions (UFs) which is implemented in client side, where the Unclonable Functions (UFs) is used to prevent the tag data from cloning by an adversary, the output of the Unclonable Functions (UFs) is dif?cult to predict and to clone. The tag in turn does not require to store any secret key, it shows that the data still remains safe even if an adversary has a physical access such as Denial of Service (DOS) to an RFID tag.

REFERENCE:

[1] M. Asadpour and M. T. Dashti.  Scalable, privacy preserving radio-frequency identi?cation protocol for the Internet of Things . IEEE Trans. Comput, Pract. Exp, vol: 27, no. 8, pp. 1932?1950, 2016.

[2] Da-Zhi Sun and Yi Mu.  Security of Grouping-Proof Authentication Protocol for Distributed RFID Systems . IEEE Wireless Communications Letters, Vol: 7, no. 2, pp.254?257, 2016.

[3] P. Gope and T. Hwang.  Untraceable sensor movement in distributed IoT infrastructure . IEEE Transactions on Sensors and Security Vol: 15, no. 9, pp. 5340?5348,2017.

[4] P. Gope and T. Hwang. A realistic lightweight anonymous authentication protocol for securing real-time application data access in wire-less sensor networks . IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron, vol: 63, no. 11, pp. 7124?7132.

[5] J. Lee and T.Q.S. Quek.  Resilience of DoS attack in designing anonymous user authentication protocol for wireless sensor networks”. IEEE Sensors J, vol: 17, no. 2, pp. 498?503, 2017.

[6] Natasa Zivic and Pierre Duhamel.  Protocol-Assisted Channel Decoding , Signal Processing Letters . IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, vol: 22, no. 7, pp. 483?486, 2012.

[7] G. Suh and S. Devadas.  Physical unclonable functions for device authentication and secret key generation . IEEE Design Autom. Conf. (DAC), vol: 6, no. 12, pp. 9?16, 2016.pp.142-146,2012

[8] M. Majzoobi, F. Kaunshanfar, and M. Potkonjak, “Techniques for Design and Implementation of Secure Reconfigurable PUFs,” ACM Transactions on Reconfigurable Technology and Systems, 2009, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 1-33.

[9] S. Yu, and S. Devadas, “Secure and Robust Error Correction for Physical Unclonable Function,” IEEE Conference on Design and Test of Computers, 2010, pp 48-65.

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Cite this essay

Privacy preserving authentication for RFID data using unclonable functions. (2019, Dec 07). Retrieved from https://studymoose.com/conference-rfid-example-essay

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