Families are viewed differently by various people in the world. Some individuals have cherished this institution. And others have not. Origins of the family article try as much to discuss what a family is and its origins. The traffic in women is an article that describes who is a woman and for many centuries what treatment women have gone through socially and mentally. This paper will give a detailed account of each of the article and lastly it will compare and contrast the contents of the two articles. Origins of the family
Different views are expressed about a family around the world whereby it has been discovered that people share common backgrounds even though extremely far apart. The most primitive people in the world including the original American Indians have their way to describe what a family is. The American Indians were the first group that was studied so that an overview or a general idea about a family was created even though the studies have been extended to many other regions around the world, there where many other observations that were carried out or taken into consideration.
One of the main issues that passively describe a family is the system of name calling or relations in the extended family. For instance, cousins never called each other cousins but brothers and sisters. Young people who grow in that setting have no questions to ask but the join the system and that kind of trend has been very natural with and for them. This kind of phenomenon was first noticed in the New York state among the few remaining Indian American tribe Iroquois by name and the Seneca tribesmen and women adopted it.
Wonders did not cease there, some indigenous tribes in India where also practicing the same. This kind of naming and relating is known as consanguinity. Families are not only found to exist in man but animals and birds as well. This is the reason why animals are found in herds or groups. Animals exhibit a unique behavior that exhibited by man or birds. For instance during the mating period of these animals is the most tempting moments that may destroy or temporarily relinquish the family relations.
The males fight to retain supremacy over one another and during this period it is rare to notice animals walking or doing things in a group as usual. This behavior has been related to the living animals that are close to human i. e. primates which now have human like characteristics. Apes also fight while mating whereby males seriously engage in fights to gain and maintain supremacy over the others; this is the time group work or family relating ties temporarily wane. What does this tell us about human family?
The human family is different from any kind of animals or birds or primates because members of a family do anything out of reasoning and nothing else. But it is the great quest for knowledge that leads to many discoveries. For example birds practice monogamy form of families and while observing them these birds fly in pairs. People also practice monogamy but some practice polyandry and polygamy. Polyandry is a practice where a woman is married to many husbands and it is not done secretly but it is well known and polygamy is when a man is having many women, it is not a secret.
This switches the topic to sexuality and family. Sex life is a must do thing to sustain and ensure continuity of any family lineages. All peoples in the world this fact and even the most primitive people know that for the continuity of the family system sex has to be practiced. Nevertheless, it is interesting that many of these people in the world where research has been conducted, they in a way respected the institution of marriage and more so sex whereby they never treated women as commodities of sex even though polygamy was practiced.
They had special times of the month or year when they practiced sex and theirs was not for pleasure but procreation. People like the Savages were believed to be very harsh and took women as tools for and of sexual intercourse to give birth to as many children as possible but this was not the case. Marriage was a respected institution where a man and a woman possessed one another. There was no jealousy and instances of men sharing women and women sharing men unless otherwise in some primitive communities where some sexual related activities occurred.
Like in some communities it was a taboo to engage in sex with someone outside with members who were perceived to enemies and it could be rather better with a close family member that that perceived enemy. However in some communities it was not a taboo for brothers and sisters to have sexual intercourse. In some communities or family groups of the ancient Greece, sexual intercourse was not prohibited among brothers and sisters because this was one an assured way of multiplying quickly and another reason was not to endanger the security of fellow countrymen by marrying from outside but with time this practice came to a halt.
One interesting trend of families that have been found in t world is where men marry many wives and naturally if a visitor comes by and he takes a night in that homestead, the visitor will be offered one of the wives to entertain for the long he will stay around no matter the visitor is known or not known to the family and this means even any strangers enjoyed that right.
In a research that was conducted in Australia, there is a sub-tribe that practices a peculiar tradition that all women in another sub tribe known to them are naturally wives to men in their tribe and it does not matter whether you have married one woman from that sub tribe but all the others by default they are wives. Sex among sub tribe members is strictly forbidden. The trend of a man being entertained sexually far away while sojourning is or was a practice by the aborigines in Australia.
In the world today the family trends are still intriguing for example some indigenous tribes are taking deliberate measures to sustain or maintain their people who are being swallowed up by wider communities especially the settlers until they resort to conducting marriages among themselves that are among sisters and brothers. It is not their fault because since time immemorial the practices took place even in ancient Biblical times.
Through a man God trusted in the town called Sodom and Gomorrah that was Lot, slept with her daughters after their mum had perished in the inferno and their was no righteous man who could have married them by then. Regardless it was their father they managed to bore children and the family of the generation continuity was established. Who know these things may be going on without the knowledge of other people or the family members themselves.
More other family customs are like the ones that are yet conducted by people all over the world, for instance, the American Indians of California have had festivals where tribes come together purposely for a promiscuous sexual intercourse. This kind of tradition is also in and practiced in Australia. In Australia some older men and magicians exploit wives in their community and monopolize many of the women for themselves. These kinds of practices have been witnessed in Hos, Santals, etc of India and others in many parts of Africa.
In many other places like the continent of South America, some communities in India, young girls enjoy sex until the get married. Families have gone through many different stages as the issue of polygamy is a hot debate whether it should be allowed or not. Some have preferred a simple family that is monogamy. Many practices of sex are not the things that should be taken for granted as diseases are popping up that are incurable and therefore families must be protected through all means. For instance many have accepted monogamy because this is the only form of or type family that better ideals are practiced.
For instance there is an assurance of save sex and true expression of love among family members more especially husband and wife. Traffic in Women Traffic in women starts with the origins of women oppression and social discrimination and the discussion of this will light to the trend of fighting for the rights of women. Further excavation of the truth may measure whether the fight for equality will bear fruit from men and among women because for a long time women have been perceived as their own enemies.
After doing a round of history on women and the cause of their discrimination and yet the have comparatively done excellent work in family circles from raising children and working tirelessly to sustain their families. One main issue is the analysis of the cause of this oppression or discrimination against women, and then it will be easier to change and achieve a society of equality. There have been situations where men were degraded like the slavery debacle, this affected women even ten times more than men.
They suffered double tragedy as sex slaves and plantation slaves. They suffered physically, socially and emotionally. Marxist theory argues that women are not suffering as they work, they are as a reserve force for labor and their low wages is a way capitalists get surplus. But the Marxist theory only handles matters pertaining to labor which truly is not oppression. Marxist theory is the best way to describe the usefulness of women in societies around the world, so an analysis of suffering women using Marxist theory is very wrong.
Maybe his (Marx) statement was or is misinterpreted to portray a tendency that women are suffering when they earning whichever meager resources to sustain their families. Unfortunately there are societies who use this excuse to oppress women. Examples have been given that some societies portray women as sex objects and nothing else. The Amazon region and New Guinea highlands are the examples in the world where women are simply known as sex objects and they are gang raped by marauding men.
On the other hand, the origin of the tendency that women are home keepers is not known but is assumed that when Marxist theory came into use men were really wanted to work, the hard labor that required the enduring energy at home hence many a times women were left at home to take care of the families. The interpretation came to be precisely referred to as historical and moral element that it is a necessity for any worker to be married or have wife. The tendency of women kept at home for child rearing and general home keeping gave birth to a belief that women can not inherit property, serve God and lead.
Capitalism bred this clear cut difference of masculinity and femininity. Some quarters up to date believe that sex oppression is part of capitalism as a social form. Due to social activities and the changes that come with it, human sex and gender have also as well changed over time. Women are expected to reproduce but it wise to differentiate between economic systems and sexual systems to avoid a scenario where women are assumed to be for only reproduction and nothing else.
Great changes have been noticed in many societies where women have been opportunities to lead in various activities that have been traditionally meant for men. Therefore, it is consequently wrong to use capitalism to assume that women are meant to sexually reproduce and not economically reproduce. All in all kinship plays an extremely important role in any society and therefore kinship will place us and social researchers in a point where every will understand social obligations that are directly associated with men, women and then both of them.
Kinship as many anthropologists may say and believe is system of categories and statuses which contradict the actual genetic relationships. A good precedent is where women or a woman is married to another woman and the marrying takes the responsibilities of a husband by paying dowry and bringing up the children. This practice is rife in many societies almost in very continent. Thus, it is not wrong to quip that kinship defines all social activities in a given society, be it economical, sexual or social activities.
Kinship enjoys the status and statutes of the principle of anthropology but there are many underlying things that should be looked into and some of which are controversial like close family intermarriages, for example a cousin marrying a cousin. But it should be born in mind that kinship systems differ from one another in culture which includes taboos and marriage. In all endeavors of kinship, marriage is one of the issues that seem to be treated with respect even though there are those primitive societies and not all of the that still use the excuse of kinship to undermine family values.
These societies that treat marriage as special they call it a gift and this a very positive sign in a way that nobody will be foolish enough to destroy the gift that has been bestowed upon him. Now, this is the most important part of kinship or the positive role that kinship plays in a society. Through the exchange of the gift family ties get stronger, solidarity and trust is established, in this case the women given away in marriage is more a gift than a man. Interestingly some people have claimed that this is a commercial venture because dowry exchanges hands.
The result of a gift in form of a woman is more profound and appreciated than other gift transactions because the relationship that is established is not just one of reciprocity but one of kinship. And this is a strong message of a society to other people who mistaken women to be sex slaves and child bearing machines. The exchange of partners also establishes their descendants related by blood. Two people may exchange gifts and quarrel or fight but in for intermarriage connects them in a permanent way.
In some communities or societies gifts giving through marriage are not as simple as it may sound. For some people the exchange of gifts in form of women sound commercial and they term it as a transaction of giving and taking making a woman who is given away as a conduit of relationships but which is true. In such occasions, oppression of women is not expected and the rate of exploitation is minimal. The term traffic in women can be clearly defined at this point.
Very apart from the normal and culturally accepted gift in form of a woman, some societies give women away for just the exchange of favors during famine, war and even some are sent away as a tribute. Then complexities start arising at this point because women are treated like commodities just given at will and at a price. In history this has happened and it differs from one cultural group or culture to another. At this very point some anthropologists argue that the issue of women trafficking came with the advent of culture meaning that culture explosion let to the exchanging and or trafficking of women.
To a wider extent this was and is not true. The exchange of women in some societies it is intended for the well being of the community and for proper procreation. However some communities or greedy individuals capitalize in the venture to traffic women for economical or material gain. These women end up being mistreated and are used as sex tools to enrich the buyers or traffickers. There must be a clear cut distinction between those ones given as gifts in marriage and those other ones given away or trafficked to enrich unscrupulous individuals.
That is why somewhere in this paper it is noted that some people envy the occasion when women are given as gifts and they feel it should be a commercial venture instead. But the genuine exchange of women in marriage is regarded as a fundamental principle of kinship. This ends up in an organized relationship of gender and sex. However, it does not oppress the women or degrade them. The analysis of a social system that touches sensitive issues like sex and gender generates very hot debates and this is the time when differing opinion are heard and some are very sentimental in nature.
This is the time when kinship and its principles are put into temptations and negative scrutiny. Comparisons of the two topics The main objective of this paper as it was clearly stated in the introduction part of it was to compare and contrast the two issues or items i. e. the origins of the family and the traffic in women. It is of the essence to first have elaborated points in each item so that a few things are mentioned or the comparisons are done in form of a summary under this topic.
First and foremost, the items have elaborated about family while the item ‘origins of family‘ concentrates on the family relationships and the close knit ties and cousins do not regard and call each other cousins but brothers. This piece of item has also highlighted the important role women play is society and the many dangers and challenges the face in their daily operations and life. The other item ‘traffic in women’ elaborates more on the treatment of family members especially women.
It has highlighted the same occurrences in women of many societies around the world. This item on its part has elaborated on the trafficking of women for commercial reasons hence a disgrace to the society but in the way round, there is a good show on the value of women as they are exchanged as gifts in marriage which portray the importance of women in the society. But the item continues to analyze the repercussions of the exchanging a woman as a gift and the repercussion is some people in society have extended this to trafficking women for their personal gain.
In both pieces of items the comparisons and contrasts do not adventure outside the family circles even though they both talk about communities or societies around the world. They have featured and analyzed about the indigenous societies or communities among them the native red Indians in the United States, the aborigines in Australia, some primitive tribes in New Guinea and many others. Women are given more attention by both items because of the mistreatment they faced and they are facing so that this studies that were and are conducted will offer solutions to the many demeaning or dignifying problems women face.
Last but not least, sex is discussed by both stories but the first story which deals with the origins of a family deeply discusses sex which is viewed as evil and the way women have been misused, while the story or item two that deals with traffic in women depicts how women have been sold for sex purposes and it is becoming a culture. The main theme of the two pieces of stories is family values which encompasses many other sub themes that are clearly depicted here. Some of the sub themes are sex, family ties, kinship or family relationships and women responsibilities.
Conclusion Families have been raised and nurtured for as many years as the age of the universe and societies have done their part in raising and teaching families their values but of all that women have played a very extremely important role. Women are the cornerstones of families and through these two items this has been strongly confirmed. Therefore the statement that they are cornerstones of families must not be controversial. However, it is sad that those women have been abused and degraded by in and by all means in our society. Society means the world in this case.
University/College: University of Chicago
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 17 October 2016
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