Computer games: Related literature Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 23 August 2016

Computer games: Related literature

Computer games are the second most frequently used application after social media (Wakoopa, and negative outcomes, especially with respect to aggression (see in Sherry, 2001; Elson & Ferguson, 2013a, 2013c; Ferguson, 2007). Although less than 4% to 5% of the users—adolescents and secondary school students—are addicted to video/computer game (Kuss & Griffiths, 2012), some of the authors expressed that computer game addiction is common in adolescence and this causes a cycle of moral panic (see the moral panic issue of computer games in Barnett & Coulson, 2010; Elson & Ferguson, 2013b; Ferguson, Coulson, & Barnett, 2011). Hellström et al. (2012) found using computer games for escapism and gaining status increased their negative effects and, in contrast, using games for fun and sociability decreased negative effects of games. 2012). Computer and online game play rates and sales are increasing every day (Entertainment Software Association, 2012).

Computer and online games are preferred by a wide range of people ranging from children and adolescents to adults. Entertainment Software Association’s (2012) research showed that the average game player is 30 years old and 32% of the players are less than 18 years old. Players choose to play games for several reasons such as fun, recreation (Griffiths & Hunt, 1995; Kuss & Griffiths, 2012), coping with stress (Grusser, Thalemann, Albrecht, & Thalemann, 2005; Wood & Griffiths, 2007), sociability, gaining status (Hellström, Nilsson, Leppert, & Åslund, 2012), and escaping real life (Wan & Chiou, 2006; Wood, Griffiths, & Parke, 2007). Research on video and computer gaming literature reports both positive and negative effects on players. Fifty-two percent of the parents highlighted that computer game playing is positive and an important element of their children’s life (Entertainment Software Association, 2012).

Thus, playing games promotes problem solving, visual, motor, and spatial skills and fosters interaction with friends outside of school (Boot, Kramer, Simons, Fabiani, & Gratton, 2008; Phillips, Rolls, Rouse, & Griffiths, 1995). Moreover, games may be effective educational tools and games relieve boredom and stress (Bowman & Tamborini, 2012). Despite the positive effects of playing computer games for adolescents, there are also negative effects, especially addictive computer game playing (Witt, Massman, & Jackson, 2011). Researchers have been investigating whether computer games can cause time distortion (Rau, Peng, & Yang, 2006), inattention, hyperactivity (Chan & Rabinowitz, 2006), aggressive behavior (Ferguson, 2007), violent acts (Ferguson et al., 2008), and negative emotions (Chumbley & Griffiths, 2006).

Furthermore, researchers are investigating whether there is an association between computer gaming and smoking, drug use, depression (Desai, Krishnan-Sarin, Cavallo, & Potenza, 2010), negative self-esteem, social anxiety and loneliness (Van Rooij, Schoenmakers, Vermulst, Van Den Eijnden, & Van De Mheen, 2011), introversion, sensation-seeking, neuroticism, low emotional intelligence (Kuss & Griffiths, 2012), and low well-being (Barnett & Coulson, 2010). Most of this work found correlations between games and negative outcomes, but there are also a lot of studies reporting no correlation or only weak correlations between games and negative outcomes, especially with respect to aggression (see in Sherry, 2001; Elson & Ferguson, 2013a, 2013c; Ferguson, 2007).

Although less than 4% to 5% of the users—adolescents and secondary school students—are addicted to video/computer game (Kuss & Griffiths, 2012), some of the authors expressed that computer game addiction is common in adolescence and this causes a cycle of moral panic (see the moral panic issue of computer games in Barnett & Coulson, 2010; Elson & Ferguson, 2013b; Ferguson, Coulson, & Barnett, 2011). Hellström et al. (2012) found using computer games for escapism and gaining status increased their negative effects and, in contrast, using games for fun and sociability decreased negative effects of games.

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