SUMMARY, CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS5.1 Introduction This chapter represents the summary of the objectives of the study, conclusions and the recommendations based on the findings of the study.5.2 SummaryThis chapter focuses on a debate of the results in relation to the research objectives. Additionally, the demographic traits of head teachers are also examined in relation to using of management styles.
The study required to examine the management styles used by head teachers of secondary schools in tehsil Chunian of district Kasur.
It was a study that used the mostly quantitative techniques. It assumed a descriptive, percentage, mean and SD was utilized that helped in founding the comparison of management styles used by head teachers of secondary schools.
In this view, information for this study was collected on the variables, which were management styles. The relationship between the variables was examined in order to decide the strength of their connection presenting between them. Jointly with studies during school visits, survey was conducted with head teachers on questionnaire to recognize the level of practice of management styles.
The researcher find out on the basis of a broad literature review and the thoroughly research carried out that head teachers accept a variety of management styles. However, for the ideas of this study, the researcher observed the comparison of management styles in general and later examined two management styles used by head teachers during managing their institutions. The researcher analyzed two management styles namely democratic and autocratic. In general, most of head teachers of the researched area were democratic.
The results on above established that democratic management styles controls the institutional performance. While noting the many challenges and demands made on the head teachers during the implementation of their tasks, the study emphasized the requirement for the improvement of management skills amongst head teachers.
The study found that unless head teachers are well prepared with management skills, they would not be capable to improve school performance extensively. Moreover, the result specified that the autocratic leadership style negatively manipulates academic environment. That means the more autocratic leadership styles are used, the poorer the manipulation on school performance. The study set up that efficient institutional presentation needs democratic management which is suggested for education heads.
5.2.1 The commonly used management style in secondary schools:
Generally, most of head teachers of the researched area are democratic (70%). Based on gender of respondents males head teachers were autocratic (53%) and female head teachers were democratic (68%). The age and academic qualification as well as job experience of the head teachers, still, found to be a significant reason in manipulating the management style utilized. Older head teachers with higher academic qualification and experience are likely to direct by pointing all management styles. Therefore the study outcomes signify that every head has an exclusive style to counter the nature of the issues.
On the other hand, because most of the head teachers, who contributed in this study, were between 36-45 years, the study concluded that head teachers most likely turn into more democratic with age, professional development and experience. The different challenges they have looked at the end of the day have allowed them to routinely advise a difference in management styles and a suitable difference in management styles as head teacher cannot possess of one style of management.
5.2.2 Democratic management style and its use in secondary schools:
This study found that the democratic management style is most used style in secondary schools of tehsil Chunian. The democratic management style supports everyone to take part in the matters of the school completely. The staff feels that they are part of the school, and therefore they are part of the management of the school. This encourages them to work hard and as a result all plans in the school are executed and the whole performance of the school improves. From the literature and practice one factor that has constantly been found to improve school efficacy is relationship between teachers.
This study also found that there is a strong connection between democratic management style of head teachers and teacher management. This is where teacher management is seeing as a combined form of management in which the teacher increases knowledge by working jointly. One of the elements of teacher management is that it focuses upon participative management where all teachers feel part of the change process and have wisdom of ownership of the presentation. So they work jointly with associates to outline school development efforts.
A school that needs to hold teacher management would require developing a background that holds teamwork, participative management, and partnership team teaching. These are all features of a school whose head teacher thinks in and follows a democratic management style. This is where a head teacher is ready to part with some of his authorities to others. Authorizing teachers to take on management responsibilities improves the teachers’ self respect and work agreement, which in turn directs to higher levels of performance due to higher inspiration. Most schools would develop their presentation by becoming more shared and more democratic.
This study therefore presents that the head teachers of secondary schools in particular be supported to use this style of management in secondary schools.
5.2.3 Autocratic management style and its use in secondary schools:
From the study’s outcomes, the autocratic management style of the schools’ head teachers has an unconstructive result on institutional performance in secondary schools in tehsil Chunian. Various cases were progressed with the truth that, autocratic school administrators be likely to be too authoritarian and cruel which brings down their staff from executing to the best of their ability.
The study also set up that in schools with autocratic management, there is always resistance. While it might be easy to start and apply change from above (top-down), at the bottom of such developments in an autocratic management setting may be hard. Literature also points to head teachers using autocratic management style as main barrier to the increase of teacher management. There is always a fear and hesitation most important to an over stress on management. Such head teachers, in the majority cases, fear to share out management to teachers also because of a lack of belief or the thought that teachers may not professionally carry out to the required values. One of the tasks of a head teacher is to put up abilities of his/her staff. Even wherever the teachers are weak in some areas they require be giving permission and taking to be capable to do to the required principles.
It is therefore advised that school head teachers should avoid the use of the autocratic management style in the schools. This style of management does not allow the teachers to communicate their best. Teachers have a lot of potential which continues unemployed due to bad management. The schools should be guidance institution for prospect education heads. But this requires a positive and cooperative condition.
5.3 ConclusionsThis study required to examine the management styles used by head teachers of secondary schools in tehsil Chunian of District Kasur. The researcher identified from literature and understood from survey of management in schools that there are many management styles used by school head teachers. However, for the reasons of this study, the researcher observed the comparison among two management styles. Apart from age, academic qualification as well as job experience of the head teachers, still, found to be a significant standard in manipulating the management style utilized.
The study found that there was an association between the age of the head teachers and their management styles. It was also distinguished that the young teachers, because of over dream, be likely to be more forceful which directed to the head teachers taking up a more autocratic management style. Older, qualified and experienced head teachers are inclined to express by directing all management styles but with democratic as most important with other styles.
The study concluded that head teachers most likely turn into more democratic with age, professional development and practice. Being democratic stands for team work is occupied. Collaboration can improve quality management in schools as groups can use resources more competently and efficiently, boost managerial efficiency, get better the quality of educational plans and make improved education and functioning backgrounds. Therefore, winning joint effort is believed a vital component in the development of victorious schools.
This study has also found that management is active towards school development is shared out management. Wherever management is contributed, cooperation is valued and frequently institutes in which collaboration grows are more efficient than institutes led by a single personality. The established approach that only top administrators had the capability to make decisions and staff had to carry out the conclusions, is now old. From the study’s results, the autocratic management style of school head teachers was found to have an unhelpful result at secondary schools in tehsil Chunian.
5.4.1 Recommendations for implications:
The continuing educational improvements need educational managers who can work in democratic and participative techniques in order to make winning links to guarantee the efficient delivery of quality education. It is hence clear from this study that there is an important role of management styles that if schools expect to function as victorious bodies. In helping these requirements, it is thus suggested that:
This study strongly proposes induction training in management and leadership for the recently employed head teachers.
The school head teacher should be familiar with that he is liable for every achievement so he must check the schools’ growth and performance.
Head teachers should contribute power and assign a few essential authorities to team members. They can give authority related to instructional management, students’ regulation, financial phases, leaves of the personnel, educational work plan, conduct of tests and co-curricular activities and society relationships etc.
Head teachers should engage personnel in the practice of decision making. They can engage them in decision making related to goals setting, accomplishment of objectives, educational work plan, carry out curricular and co-curricular activities, and events of particular days and other affairs of school.
Special working groups should be arranged to carry out different functions of school. In these groups leading and skilled teachers and society spokespersons might be consisted.
School Councils should be well-designed suitably. The work of these councils should be observed on ground not only in documents.
It is therefore advised that school head teachers bypass the employ of the autocratic management style in the administration of schools. Main ideas of educational management point out that there is an alteration from autocratic management style to an extra democratic form of decision making in schools.
In order to encourage democratic management style in the schools the following are some suggestions at the institution level:
Do away with top down decision-making practices.
Share out the duties and authorities for management broadly all over the school.
Distribute decision-making authorities with employees, and letting them to direct their own decision-making groups.
Make sure competent group problem solving during staff conferences.
Adjust working situations so that employees have joint participation in decision-making related to latest ideas in the school.
Generate chances for employee’s growth.
5.4.2 Recommendations for further research
The study is proposed to investigate the association and the contact of unusual educational and shared variables with management styles in Pakistan.
Additional research on a nationwide stage model might be carried out so as to create suitable conclusions prior to strategy formulation and implementation in the field.
Related research may be accomplished in other provinces of Pakistan to expand management form at secondary level. Additional research can involve bigger sample.
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