India vs Singapore: Closing the Growth Gap




Singapore and India are the most possible economic systems of Asia. But Singapore is a developed and India is a developing economic system. In this undertaking, we tried to analyze how both these states emerged in the last few decennaries through structural models, policies, establishments and schemes and favourable/unfavourable concern environments that helped states to this present phase ( developed/developing states ) .

Finally, the undertaking focuses on the cardinal acquisitions that India can follow from Singapore to catch up with its growing and emerge as the most attractive and powerful developed economic system in Asia and in the universe.

Singapore: Structure, Conduct & A ; Performance Framework


Context Conduct/Strategy Performance
  • 1960s High Unemployment
  • The economic system was extremely dependent on the transshipment center trade, the fabrication sector was undeveloped.
  • In 1970s, the unemployment rate was high ( more than 10 % ) and the separation of Singapore from Malaysia had destroyed the original program of organizing a common market in the part, which would hold made Singapore even more attractive to foreign investors
  • To set up an establishment that takes attention of foreign investing.
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  • Promoting Singapore as the perfect location to construct low-priced fabrication Centres for the large corporations.
  • Promoting revenue enhancement inducements investings in countries deficient of local private expertness.
  • Continuing the Central Provident Fund ( CPF ) societal security strategy to assist finance the public investing.
  • National Trade Union Congress ( NTUC ) was formed.
  • Singapore’s GDP grew at an norm of around 6 % per twelvemonth from 1960s and the fabrication portion of the GDP raised from around 10 % in 1960 to about 15 % in the late portion of 1960s.
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  • In late 1970s the CPF helped in constructing a work force that was based on difficult work, self-help and thrift.
  • Towards the ulterior portion of 1970s, the unemployment rate was really low at 3.5 % while the fabrication industries continued to turn to around 25 per centum of GDP. Singapore started deriving international acknowledgment with its one-year GDP growing rate of about 10 % .
Context Conduct/Strategy Performance
  • Faced a really tight and rigorous labor market with high force per unit areas on workers’ rewards while the rewards in the emerging economic systems were rather low and it was tough for the state to stay competitory.
  • Faced with capital job
  • Competition from states like China & A ; Malaysia as hubs for low pay workers states
  • Workforce needed to upgrade its employment accomplishment degree to enable the state to travel out of the fabrication into the service industry.
  • Focused on fabrication sector.
  • Formed the National Computer Board ( NCB ) in 1981 for set uping nice cognition and preparation of workers in the IT related industries.
  • Significant preparation for the development of human resources accomplishments in the state
  • Expansion of value- added industries
  • Developed schemes to implement a civilization of Information Technology usage and application all throughout the state.
  • EDB provided strategies for revenue enhancement inducements and other benefits for multi-national companies.
  • Singapore noticed a constantly lift in growing rate in GDP at an norm of 7.3 % .
  • The skilled employees proportion had risen from 10.8 % in 1979 to 22 % and IT gross revenues ( domestic and export ) had increased by more than 10 times by 1990
Context Conduct/Strategy Performance
  • To guarantee that the state would follow high-technology.
  • Such measure was necessary for the economic system to switch the focal point from holding copiousness in low-skilled labor to one that involves more skilled labor in high tech industries.
  • Crisiss like SARS outbreak in 2003 and menace of terrorist act
  • During the crises, the mean monthly income dropped to SGD $ 4870
  • Increasing Growth in Immigrant Population of Singapore has brought Policy Challenges
  • Through NUS planetary cooperation plans, high accent on the degree of technological research of the state
  • Initiation of the Singapore-Johor-Riau ( SIJORI ) growing trigon.
  • Experience and Institutions development
  • Set up Economic Review Committee
  • Exploited first movers advantages
  • Singapore did non divert off from the transshipment center trade construction which it had inherited from its colonial Masterss.
  • Within fabrication industry, ramifying off from electronics to other possible countries such as biomedical fabrication and chemicals ( particularly pharmaceuticals )
  • The portion of the fiscal services had risen to 30 % of its GDP, well higher from the 20 % degree in 1980s
  • The research scientists’ figure has besides increased to more than 10,000.
  • Singapore’s economic system grew at an norm of 8 % in the 1990s boulder clay it tapered by around 1 % in 1998 due to the economic crisis in Asia.
  • The value of re-exports has increased drastically from S $ 3.25 billion in 1960 to S $ 204 billion in 2006.
  • If returns are considered, the factor income of Singapore from the remainder of the universe was about 11 % of GDP.

Cardinal policies/objectives/institutions in macroeconomic model which led to the growing of Singapore:

Aims Policies Institutions
. Global hub for Manufacturing

. Increase Efficiency & A ; Productivity

. High Technology Industries growing

. Become a planetary for trade

. Create Skill base

.Create Educational Institutions

. Create establishments for productiveness

. Create Port with unity

. Facilitate Inter Asian Trade

. Fostering local enterprisers

. Tie ups with trade establishments ( WTO, ASEAN, non-aligned motion )

. Develop substructure

. Instituting of techno Parkss

. Invest in R & A ; D

. Bilateral relationships with other emerging states

. EDB ( Economic Development Board ) to advance fabrication sector

. Spring ( Standard, Productivity, Innovation to fit for Global Standards ) to increase efficiency and productiveness

. ASTAR ( Agency for Science Technology & A ; Research ) to make an advanced economic system.

. NCB ( National Computer Board ) to set up nice cognition and preparation of workers in the IT industries.

INDIA – Structure, Conduct and Performance Framework

Since there were no major reforms/changes happened prior to 1990s, we considered the frame work from 1990s.


Liberalization, promoting the private sectors ; trade liberalization ; promoting investings, reforming the revenue enhancement system.

Educational strategy like Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan ( SSA ) was launched to increase the % of literacy rate.

  • Quick recovery station 2008 recession:

Farm loan release, enlargement of National Rural Employment Guarantee Act ( NREGA ) and boost in public sector wages had a important function in lighting the domestic demand. Savingss rate in India is much higher compared to international criterions and banking installations developed taking to budding of smaller corporates.

  • Focus on Service sector like IT led India in the growing way.
  • Large Budget Deficits

Budget shortage amounted to important % of GDP. It has emerged as a hurdle for increasing investing in public services like instruction and wellness.

  • Balance of Payments impairment.

Imports growing is faster than exports connoting India requires to pull capital flows to finance the shortage. The brawny shortage caused the depreciation in the rupee value.

  • High degrees of private debt

Lending grown by 30 % in the past few old ages. If involvement rates increases, it will go forth those indebted confronting mounting involvement payments and accordingly cut downing purchaser disbursement in the hereafter.

  • Inflation

Fuelled by increasing rewards, belongings monetary values and nutrient monetary values. This rising prices is non merely due to extra demand, but besides is linked to be push inflationary standards.

  • Poor Infrastructure

Indian populace services are enduring under the strain of bureaucratism and inefficiency. The market has important supply restraints and inefficiencies. There was no proper substructure to pull investings from aliens and companies.

  • Rigid labor Laws

Trade Unions have a critical political power base and authoritiess frequently avoids from undertaking the politically sensitive labor Torahs.

  • Inefficient agribusiness

Agribusiness produces about 19 % of economic end product but, over 49 % of the work force are employed in agribusiness. This is an unproductive sector of the economic system and reform has proved uneffective over the old ages.

  • Policy enterprises taken in 1991 had important impact on the growing flight over the old ages.

Net National Product ( NNP ) at factor cost ( at 1993-94 monetary values ) increased from 0.53 per cent in 1992 to 6.25 per cent in 2000.

Gross National Product ( GNP ) at factor cost ( at 1994 monetary values ) increased from 1.12 % in 1992 to 6.2 % in 2000. It increased to 8.7 per centum in 2003 at 99-2000 monetary values. GDP at factor cost ( at 1999-2000 monetary values ) has increased from 4.5 % in 2000 to 7.5 % in 2004.


In 1997, there was a lessening in GNI and other macroeconomic indexs. India recorded reasonably slower growing rate during 2nd half of 90’s because of the gradualist attack India followed by which the execution of reforms were really slow.

  • 2001 RECESSION

The stock monetary values were volatile and deficiency of investings affected assorted sectors because of recession in US, which resulted in loss of IT occupations. But station 2001 boulder clay 2008 India had a booming period with GDP increasing at 9 % from 2004 to 2008. Savings rate of India peaked during this period.

  • 2008 Recession

Indian stock market crashed and capital flight ensued. Government and private companies were loath to get down new undertakings. This was the major cause for the lessening in GDP in 2008.

  • INDIA POST 2008

Post Global recession the economic system is still remains sulky. In 2012 India attained a low growing rate of 4.4 % attributed to immersing Indian rupee, slow industrial growing. Possibility of quantitative moderation and foreign investors drawing out of India seem like a negative mark. In 2014, it is expected from Indian economic system to turn at a rate of 4-4.5 % .

The world’s easiest place to do businessBusiness ENVIRONMENT IN SINGAPORE: THE MOST FAVOURABLE IN MANY ASPECTS

  1. Singapore is the easiest topographic point to make concern, chiefly due to the manner in which administrative affairs are handled limpidly. Singapore helps cut downing the complexness of the procedure of enrollment for revenue enhancements, belongings enrollment by utilizing the on-line signifier.
  1. The country’s fight is reinforced by factors like robust substructure, impressive transit installations and strong labor market. Singapore tops in the list of minimal corruptness in the universe.


  1. Singapore is considered as the most attractive every bit far as investing location is concerned. Business friendly authorities policies, impressive substructure, attractive labor market conditions are few grounds for achieving such rank.


  1. Most network-ready state of Asia: There are immense degrees of authorities and concern preparedness and use of engineering ; doing Singapore the most attractive topographic point for concern. With one of the extended telecommunications webs, Singapore has efficient connectivity in Asia and robust substructure connectivity in the universe.

5. Singapore ranks foremost in the undermentioned factors for holding finest Supply concatenation direction

• Border clearance and the efficiency of imposts

•Robust substructure

•The effortless agreement of competitively priced cargos

•Efficient path and hint cargos

•The timely bringing of cargos to the consignees.



Unfavorable factors for Business in India:

Policy and Procedures: Government policies and procedures in India are the most many-sided, vexing and bulky in the universe. Even after the open liberalization, they do non current a really good state of affairs. One indispensable demand for success in globalization is instant and competent effort.

High Cost: High cost of vivacious factors and other facets like natural stuffs and intermediates, finance infrastructural comfortss like port etc. , slope to cut down the fight of the Indian Business in the international context.

Poor Infrastructure: Infrastructure is a major concern impacting fight every bit good as the growing in India. It is inefficient and non adequate for proper growing. It is ensuing in more costs

Obsolescence: The engineering engaged, method or attack of operations are out-dated and these utterly hurt the competence

Resistance to Change: Technological upgrading is repelled because of unemployment. The excess labor working in the Indian industry is counterproductive cut downing productiveness and cheap labour handiness. Socio-political factors resist alteration in the manner of modernization, streamlining and efficiency sweetening.

Poor Quality Image: The quality of merchandises made in India is deprived. Even if the quality is maintained good, the quality image projected is low.

Supply Problems: Indian companies are missing the capableness to accept brawny orders or to maintain up bringing agendas because of jobs like low capacities, RM shortages, and hapless substructures ( port, power, conveyance etc. )

Small Size:For the ground that of the resources were of little size and low degree, in legion instances Indian houses are non competent plenty as the giants of other states. Even the premier Indian companies are fiddling compared to the transnational companies.

Inadequate R & A ; D and Marketing Research:Outgo on R & A ; D is less than 1 % of GNP in India where as it is 2-3 % in many other developed states.

Lack of Experience:The overall deficiency of experience in managing international concern is another important job.

Trade Barriers:Even though the duty barriers to merchandise hold been reduced thanks to the GATT/WTO, the nontariff hurdlings have been roll uping, preponderantly in the developed states. Furthermore, the trading confederations like the EC, NAFTA etc. could besides hold inauspicious consequence on India’s concern.

Rising Competition:The competition is mounting both from the houses in the developed and developing states. In fact, the emergent competition from the developing state houses is a terrible competition to international concern of India.

Favorable factors for Business in India:

Human Resources:In add-on to the low cost of labor, there are legion aspects of human resources to India’s favor. One of the largest group of proficient work force is available in India. While rather a batch of states are confronting labour deficit and shriveling labour supply, in India, the instance is merely the contrary. Cheap labor has become Centres of attractive force for assorted industries.

Wide Base:India has a really wide-ranging resource and industrial base which can back up a assortment of concern.

Turning Domestic Market:The emergent domestic market empowers the Indian companies to consolidate their place and to do venture into the foreign market or to amplify their foreign concern.

Turning Entrepreneurship:Quite a batch of conventional industries are fixing to travel international in a large manner. Furthermore, new and dynamic enterprisers are doing significant part to the globalization of concerns in India.

Expanding Markets:The mounting population and disposable income and the attendant turning internal market provides monolithic concern chances.

Niche Markets:There are several selling chances present in the signifier of market niches.

Transnationalisation of World Economy:This term implies the merger of the national economic systems into a individual universe economic system as demonstrated by the developing mutuality and globalization of markets is an external facet hiking globalization of Indian Business.

NRIs:The brawny figure of non-resident Indians who are resourceful ( sing accomplishment, experience, thoughts, capital, etc. ) can help to the globalization of Indian Business.

Competition:The lifting competition throughout the universe, incites many Indian companies to see the foreign markets seriously to better their competitory place.

Economic Liberalization:The economic liberalization is an reassuring factor of globalization. Opening up of industries earlier reserved for the populace sector, the riddance of restrictions on growing, import liberalizations, liberalization of process towards foreign capital, , etc. , could promote globalization of Indian Business.


The followers are the cardinal acquisitions India can follow from Singapore’s economic theoretical account:

  • India has to concentrate on how to go an Investment finish by bettering operations, stable political systems, foreign exchange ; extinguishing trade limitations ( repatriation of net incomes and import of capital ) , developing strong diplomatic ties.
  • India has to acquire connected to different parts of the universe through strong substructure in ports, has to hold strong legal system and attractive revenue enhancement system for foreign coactions.
  • Conducting concern should be made easy by simplifying the procedure of puting up to integrate a company and enrollment for revenue enhancements. Forms of ordinances can be made on-line entries and the whole procedure of enrollment should be computerized and speedy.
  • Support of first substructure with outstanding transit services and a robust accent on instruction taking to forces with the accomplishments required for a rapidly altering planetary economic system should be done on top precedence. Training programmes ready handiness, good inducements to pull foreign and local endowment, sound instruction policies and establishments with good modernized substructure are some of the lines India has to better on.
  • There is a demand for a high degree of single, concern and authorities preparedness in the use of the advanced engineering to better productiveness, cheap labour unit costs in comparative to the value of goods and services produced and innovativeness in the Indian civilization.
  • India has to better a batch on LPI index ( Logistics Performance Index ) by: increasing the efficiency of imposts and boundary line clearances, quality of trade and conveyance substructure, easiness of set uping cargos, quality of logistics services, tracking and following cargos and seasonableness in bringings.
  • India has to better on IP ( Intellectual Property ) protection. Innovation is really less in the state because of weak ordinances sing IP protection.
  • Indian authorities policies have to be crystalline, accountable in concern traffics and minutess to increase trust among the investors. Investors sentiments play a cardinal function in Indian market
  • Higher rates of productiveness can besides be achieved with better working conditions, which were missing in Indian corporates. Open communicating channels and better organisational constructions would assist develop dealingss in the workers at different hierarchies ensuing in higher productiveness.
  • Labour ordinances are cardinal to growing in states like India. By doing ordinances most effectual and flexible, India can give manner for companies on resourcing one of the cardinal factors of production.
Cite this page

India vs Singapore: Closing the Growth Gap. (2020, Jun 01). Retrieved from

India vs Singapore: Closing the Growth Gap
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