Community-Acquired Typical Pneumonia

Categories: CommunityMedicine

The bacterial respiratory disease we will be focusing on today is Community-Acquired Typical Pneumonia. Community-acquired pneumonia (CPAP) refers to a pneumonia acquired from normal social contacts (I.e., in the community) as opposed to being acquired while in a hospital. Roughly 80 percent of bacterial pneumonia is Streptococcus pneumonia, also known as pneumococcal pneumonia. We should take precautions when encountering community-acquired typical pneumonia patients since this disease is droplet transferred. Treatment for community-acquired typical pneumonia is usually treated with antibiotic, even though these types of pneumonia are increasingly becoming antibiotic-resistant.


[Streptococcus is a gram-positive organism, nonmotile coccus that is found singly, in pairs (called diplococci), and in short chains. The cocci are enclosed in a smooth, thick polysaccharide capsule that is essential for virulence. With more than 80 types of streptococcus pneumoniae, the most hostile type is Serotype. [The serotype 3 capsule has some unique characteristics that may explain this lack of efficacy—capsular polysaccharide is abundantly expressed, leading to a greater thickness of capsule, and free capsular polysaccharide may be released during growth.

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The serotype 3 component of the Luminex multiplex assay demonstrates inferior inter-laboratory reproducibility than other components and results may not be reliable.] Staphylococcal pneumonia often occurs after patient has been exposed to other viral infection, this type of pneumonia is typically seen in children and adults whose immune system are suppressed. [Staphylococcal pneumonia is caused by Staphylococcus aureus, gram-positive cocci that usually spread to the lung through the blood from other infected sites, most often the skin. Though a common community pathogen, it is found twice as frequently in pneumonias in hospitalized patients.

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Patients with typical CAP classically present with fever, a productive cough with purulent sputum, dyspnea, and pleuritic chest pain. Characteristic pulmonary findings on physical examination include the following: Tachypnea, rales heard over the involved lobe or segment, Increased tactile fremitus, bronchial breath sounds, and egophony may be present if consolidation has occurred and Decreased tactile fremitus and dullness on chest percussion may result from parapneumonic effusion or empyema. Patients are usually diagnosed by findings on chest x-rays, complete blood count (CBC) with differential and BUN levels. The chest x-rays usually show inflammation, which usually shows up as opaque.

In some patients that have early onset on CPAP, the chest x-rays are usually not very reliable since the x-ray will show up negative. Therefore having repeated x-rays between 12-24 hours for patients with suspected CPAP. [For patients with severe CAP, patients being empirically treated for methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) or Pseudomonas, or patients in whom a specific etiology is suspected, additional workup may be warranted, including the following: Sputum Gram stain and/or culture, blood cultures, serum sodium level, serum transaminase levels, lactic acid level, C-reactive protein (CRP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), molecular diagnostics, ie, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing, urinary antigen testing for Legionella species.


Pneumonia is considered droplet precaution. Droplet precaution are transferred through tiny droplets, this can happen when you cough and sneeze. Pneumonia is contagious varies depending, usually from one day to weeks. To prevent transmission, we should always wash our hands with hot water and soap, this is the most effective way in killing bacteria and keep from spreading germs. Wearing a mask if you are sick to prevent yourself from spreading the bacteria to others or wearing a mask to protect yourself from others. Always cough and/or sneeze into the elbows and not into your hands since your hands touch other surfaces and could contaminate it. In hospitals, signs are usually posted at the door and supplies necessary for the precaution are usually stationed right outside the patient’s room. Symptoms of Community-acquired pneumonia: cough, chills, fatigue, dyspnea and pleuritic chest pain,


Before treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, the patient’s sputum is cultured and tested for the bacteria. If the patient is positive for community-acquired pneumonia, the patient is usually prescribed antibiotics. [Antibiotics are medicines that help stop infections caused by bacteria. They do this by killing the bacteria or by keeping them from copying themselves or reproducing. The word antibiotic means “against life.” Any drug that kills germs in your body is technically an antibiotic. These antibiotics include, Levofloxacin 750mg PO q24h, Moxifloxacin 400mg PO q24h, combination of Amoxicillin 1g PO q8h and Macrolide. Patients are usually advised to stay home and be on bed rest and to increase their fluids. From what we know about community-acquired pneumonia, we should all take precautions and take care of ourselves and prevent the spread of infection. Staying up to date with our vaccinations and getting the influenza vaccination can help prevent pneumonia. [Each year in the United States, more than 250,000 people have to seek care in a hospital due to pneumonia. Unfortunately, about 50,000 people die from the disease each year in the United States. Most of the people affected by pneumonia in the United States are adults (2019).


Community-acquired typical pneumonia (CPAP) is a pneumonia that is acquired from normal contact. This is a droplet-based transmission, this means we should be careful of what we are touching since droplet based can be transmitted by contaminated surfaces and host. Practicing good hand hygiene is our best defense against any infection. We can help prevent pneumonia by being vaccinated against diseases that can lead to pneumonia. CPAP is the very common but left untreated can be life threatening.


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  4. (Linley, Bell, Gritzfeld, & Borrow, 2019) Linley, E., Bell, A., Gritzfeld, J. F., & Borrow, R. (2019, January 3). Should Pneumococcal Serotype 3 Be Included in Serotype-Specific Immunoassays? Retrieved February 13, 2020, from
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Community-Acquired Typical Pneumonia. (2022, Jun 04). Retrieved from

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