Cold War Essay
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Cold War was a period marked by political, ideological and economic rivalry that emanated from United States and Soviet Union after the Second World War. The animosity between United State and USSR lasted between late 1940s and late 1980s . Cold war was coined from the fact that the two sides feared the effect using weapons, instead they resorted diplomatic ideologies rather than force. The rivalry between these two supper powers was exposed through the weapons developments, military coalitions, advances in industrialization and technology.
Cold war brought tension to international crises, for example the Berlin Blockade (1948-49), the Korean War (1950-53), the Berlin crisis in 1961, Vietnam War (1959-75) the Cuban missile crisis and the Afghanistan war which raised fear of a Third World War . The NATO exercise in 1983 patent the end such crisis. The collapse of the Soviet Union marked the end of cold war between late 1980s and early 1990s and the progress towards democracy began. The then president of United States, Ronald Reagan, came up with new policies.
He increased economic pressure, military action and diplomacy on Soviet Union who by then was undergoing economic crisis .
The clear cut regarding the origin of the Cold War is not well known. While some historians trace its origin to the end of world war 11, others argue that it began at the end of the First World War in the 19th Century with the United States, Russian Empire and the British Empire. The ideological differences between capitalist and communist started in 1970 with the coming out of Soviet Union from Russian Revolution as a communist state. This resulted to tensions between United State and USSR because of the changes that occurred. The change in political point of views after the Second World War ushered in the Cold War.
The nuclear arms race brought differences between US and Soviet Union. Between 1960s and 1970s, both United States and the Soviet Union adjusted to a new pattern of international relations bringing unity in the world. From the commencement of the postwar era, Western Europe and Japan hastily recovered from the destruction of World War II and continued strong economic growth. The 1973 oil crisis, combined with influence of Third World alignments such as the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) and the Non-Aligned Movement, less-powerful countries had more opportunity to affirm their independence. 2.
0 Effects of Cold War on the World Economy The cost of the Cold War was terrific; the military expenditure by United State during that period was estimated to have exceeded more than $8 trillion and nearly 100,000 American solders lost their lives in Vietnam and Korean War. The number of lives lost in the midst of the war by Soviet solders was hard to estimate. Millions of soldiers died in the superpowers proxy wars especially in the region of the globe, most markedly in the Southeast Asia. Following to the disbanding of the Soviet Union, post cold war become unpopular with the United States becoming the only superpower in the world.
On 21st Dec 1991, the Commonwealth of Independent States was formed and it was viewed by many as a successor of Soviet Union. Russia slashed military spending after the end of cold war, leaving many unemployed . The financial crisis and recession affected Russia in 1990s when they tried to reform their economic capitalistic. The cold war also influenced the world affairs. It defines the united state political role in post-world war 11. In 1953, the US president Dwight D. Eisenhower reduced military expenditure by brandishing nuclear control while continuing to fifth cold war The U.
S held military alliances with some countries estimated to 50 allied to them and had more than 1. 5 million troops abroad in 117 countries by 1989. Most of the local conflicts and proxy war ended with cold war. The ethnic wars interstate war, refugees and revolutionary wars declined sharply. Cold war conflicts legacy can not be erased effortlessly as numerous economic and social tensions exploited in third world are still fresh and acute. The struggle to control those countries they ruled by Communist government has twisted it course and produced ethnic wars and civil wars especially in Yugoslavia.
T he ends of cold war soup a new era of economic growth and numerous liberal democracies in East Europe. Afghanistan attained independence but unfortunately their state failure. International conflicts The war between America and Iraq, the US claimed that Iraq was preparing biological, chemical and nuclear weapons of mass destruction. Saddam Hussein who was then the Iraq president denied the allegation. This war almost brought down the US economy. The soviet-Afghan war took nine years. It was a conflict between soviet forces supporting Marxist Peoples Democratic Party of Afghanistan (PDPA) government and Mujahedeen Resistance.
The latter got support from United State, Saudi Arabia, and Pakistan and other Muslim nation in context to cold war. The incomplete conflict in Afghanistan has heathen tension in the war like that of Vietnam War. The U. S president Jimmy Carter said that the inversion of Soviet was “the most serious threat to peace since the Second World War” he later placed trade ban on Soviet Union. The tension was high and the Soviet took thousands military troop to oil rich region in the gulf. International diplomatic retort was harsh, Leading to boycott of 1980 summer Olympic in Moscow.
The invasion and revolution in Iran, the US captive that accompanied them, the Iran–Iraq War, the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon, the escalating tensions between Pakistan and India, and the rise of Middle East-born terrorism against the West, contributed to making the Middle East an extremely violent and turbulent region during the 1980s. Capitalism The capitalism is a state of government whereby economic production system are controlled by private sector rather than government. It is a social system based on individual rights.
The exchange and distribution of capital between private persons or profit seeking legal are protected, and pricing of goods, distribution, services, income, and investment are determined through opened market economy in which any one can take part in supply and demand rather than central economic system. In to the history, capitalism has met resistance throughout. Some critics consider economic regulation necessary because it reduces negligence, corruptions and other problems arising from free markets. Trends associated to globalization have increased mobility of people and capital since 20th century.
This has made capitalism to be viewed today as a world system. In the last half century, economic growth has been steady, life expectancy increased and infant mortality rate dropped in developing nation. In 2008, America and other governments were seeing state intervention in global markets signaling free-market capitalism. The financial Markets and uproar in banking system resulting from supreme mortgage crisis was at the peak in September 2008, this was seen by liquidity in global market and ongoing threats on investment banks. Communism
Communism is a distinct socio-political philosophy that promotes the establishment of an egalitarian, classless society that is willing to use force to accomplish its goals. Communism believes in equality force. They also embrace atheism and dismiss religion as basis formed by the rich and superpowers to lock off the poor. During cold war, communism spread into many countries. The Soviet Army captured several nations in both Eastern Europe and East Asia and expand communism. The Soviet communist took control in Romania, Poland, Bulgaria, Hungary, East Germany and Czechoslovakia.
After the Second World War, Albania turned out to be independent communist nation. By 1950, Chinese communists controlled the majority of populous nation in the World. Whit rising control of the communism in the world, it led to fight through guerrilla warfare and conventionalism i. e. Korean War Vietnam War Middle East. Communists attempted to unite with socialist forces and nationalist against what they perceived as western imperialism in poor nations. The fear of communism was seen when Italian resistance movements and Chinas involvement in the Second World War.
Western democrats and capitalist saw communist as a threat. This rivalry between the two superpowers was at the peak during the cold war. Their difference polarized the world into two camps whit each camp strengthening military power, developing new weapons and nuclear, fought each other through proxy client nations, and competed in space development technology. The U. S. feared communist spread hence spurred aggressive investigations deputation of suspected people, blacklisting and red-baiting.
The economic critics of socialism was seen when they introduced free price system in market economy to guide economic activities. Free Market economist felt that controlled or fixed price will give inappropriate information about relative scarcity. The market economist sees that comparing the cost to sales revenue will enable business owners to evaluate their viability. Socialist reject market mechanism of pricing claiming that market system is tending towards monopoly or oligopoly to some key industries leading to prices distortion.