Cloud Based Mobile Video Streaming Techniques Computer Science Essay

Categories: Network

I. Introduction

Developing multi-media content for effectual indicant over logical thinking of cloud based centered nomadic system with limited informations rates, such as the 3G-324M system needs accomplishments and cognition. It needs an knowing of the basicss that have an consequence on film quality, such as codec pick and compaction, and the usage of specific resources, such as the FFMPEG Development, and Zencoder Cloud centered

Development API which can be used to formalize that the stuff of videos cartridge holder informations file are efficaciously specified for terminal clients.

II. Video Fundamentalss

Due to bandwidths of nomadic webs are limited, video informations must be encoded/compressed well. This portion wraps the basicss of encoded picture and its features within different webs.

A. Bandwidth

In multi-media cyclosis plans, picture encryption is used for the ground that uncompressed picture demands immense information infinite to hive away informations. In fact, High definition ( HD ) movies on DVD or Blu-ray are already in a compacted format that provides information of 4 – 6 Megabyte per second.

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For cellular streaming systems, which can necessitate information rates every bit low as 30 Ks per second, this means that it clip must be compacted 1000s of times or more to accomplish the needed information. With the growing of cellular multi-media cyclosis, you should work within the information limitations of the web and the ability of the end point. Although 3G and following coevals systems provide much higher bandwidths to cellular phone devices, as more and more end points use these systems for multi-media undertakings, conformity to concentrate on terminal clients bitrates will go more indispensable than today [ 1 ] .

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B. Networks for Video Streaming

Table I illustrates the web ambiances used for administering picture services with different facets [ 1 ] :

Table I






Image Size


64 Kbps

Video Handsets

H.263, MPEG-4, H.264


3G Radio

256-768 Kbps

Video French telephones, smart phones

H.263, H.264, MPEG-4


Broadband IP

768 Kbps

Smart phones, soft client on Personal computer




2-5 Mbps

Soft client



WiMax, LTE

2-100 Mbps

Personal computer, Television, portable devices



C. Audio/Video Codecs

An audio codec is a system using standards that encode and decode electronic digital sound information harmonizing to a given sound extendible or films online sound construction. The point of the standards is to mean the great stableness sound indicant with lowest bitrates while protecting the excellent.

Examples: AAC, ADPCM, MP3, WMA, PCM, Vorbis, Dolby AC-3.

A picture codec, brief for Encoder/Decoder, is used to encode video information to carry through a really low bitrate.

Examples: MPEG-2, H.263, MPEG-4 and H.264.

To carry through such little bitrate audio/video, codecs make usage of both lossless and lossy compaction methods. We can carry through this by 3rd jubilation system like FFMPEG unfastened beginning libraries and Zencoder cloud-based encryption API.

Compaction public presentation is the capableness of a codec to encode or decrypt more video/audio features into an information flow described by fewer spots. The more effectual a codec is at compaction, the better the quality and acuteness of the video/audio cartridge holder.

III. Video Streaming

In streaming process, it clip informations file is sent to the terminal person in a ( more or less ) uninterrupted flow. It is merely a scheme for switching information such that it can be prepared as a stable and on-going flow and it is known as Streaming or encoded film that is sent across information system is known as Streaming. Streaming film is a series of “ traveling images ” that are sent in compacted signifier over the Internet and shown by the audience as they appear [ 4 ] . If a web person is acquiring the information as beginnings so he/she does non hold to wait around to obtain a big informations file before sing it clip or basking the sound.

A. Streaming Principle

Real-time picture applications require media packages to get in a timely mode ; overly delayed packages are useless and are treated as lost [ 6 ] . In streaming plans it is necessary for the information packages to make their location in regular footing because the delay can do the web obstruction, and can ensue in the lessening in all those packages enduring from utmost delay. This causes lessening in quality of information, the synchronism between client and hosting waiter to be damaged and errors to administer in the provided film.

There are two types of steaming, one is real-time and other is prerecorded streaming. The protocol used for streaming intent is UDP ( User Datagram Protocol ) , which delivers the multi-media flow as a sequence of little packages [ 4 ] . The bulk of conveyance protocols perform over an RTP stack, which is implemented on top of UDP/IP to supply an end-to-end web conveyance for picture streaming [ 2 ] .

B. Video Streaming Architecture

A cloud based nomadic film streaming strategy is represented in Fig. 1. A cloud based beginning implements a streaming hosting waiter which is responsible for recovering, directing and accommodating it clip flow. Depending on the application, it clip may be protected online for a real-time broadcast medium or pre -encoded and stored for airing an on demand [ 3 ] .

Plans such as synergistic film, unrecorded broadcast, nomadic film cyclosis or synergistic on-line games require existent -time encryption. However, applications such as film on-demand require pre-encoded film. When the multicast session is initialized, the streaming hosting waiter retrieves the tight film and begins the burden with the equal bitrate watercourse.


Fig. 1 Video Streaming Architecture

IV. Video Encoding Techniques

Video codecs employ a scope of encoded/decoded methods to suit videos signal into the allocated channel bandwidth. These encoding methods can act upon the bring forthing quality of it otherwise. An apprehension of development constructs can assist a stuff supplier determine what stuff will look best on a nomadic phone, and stress some of the expected trade-offs when bring forthing multi-media informations files.

Rapid bandwidth lessening can be carried out by utilizing picture encoded/decoded methods such as [ 1 ] :

Extinguishing mathematical redundancies

dropping quality size ( CIF to QCIF )

Using less frames per second ( 15 Federal Protective Service to 10 Federal Protective Service )

Further bandwidth lessening can be carried out by using the manners within it information and extinguishing redundancies. Image compaction depends on taking information that is indiscernible to the audience. Motion colony provides insertion between frames, utilizing less information to mean the alteration. The aim of videos encoder/decoder is to take out redundancies in it flow and to scribe as small information as possible. To accomplish this aim, the encoder examples it flux in two ways:

In clip continuances from consecutive frames ( temporal sphere )

Between nearby pels in the same frame ( spacial sphere ) aˆ‚aˆ‚

A picture decipherer pieces it flux together by handling the development procedure. The decipherer reconstructs it flow by adding together the pel fluctuations and form fluctuations to organize complete picture. In current picture encoding rules demands such as MPEG and H263 households.

A. Encoded Video Stream

An encoded picture watercourse consists of two types of encoded frames [ 1 ] :




An I-frame is encoded as a individual image, without citing to any other frames. Each 8×8 block is foremost transformed from the spacial sphere into the frequence sphere [ 5 ] . It is besides called a key frame, because it symbolizes the referrals key of it clip flow. All pels that describe the image are defined in the I-frame. Videos cartridge holder decipherer must get down with an I-frame to decrypt it clip flow because without an I-frame, a film decipherer has no referrals to find how film pels have changed as the earlier frame. For this ground, compressed film recordings usually do non get down until an I-frame is received by the videos device.


A P-frames is encoded comparative to past mention frame [ 5 ] , which can either be an I-frame or a before P-frame. The measure of information in a P-frame is many times little than the measure of information in an I-frame. If videos cartridge holder begins understanding on a P-frame at an end point, an single might see either scrambled film or no film, because there is no referrals frame.

B. Video Streaming bundle ( .MP4, .3GP )

When streaming multi-media files to cellular French telephones, it clips and audio informations must be placed in the proper construction. The bundle construction for cellular multi-media cyclosis is the.3gp, defined by the 3rd Generation Partnership Project ( 3GPP ) [ 1 ] and.mp4 file for bringing to cellular phone devices. Because the bandwidths of film telephone webs are limited, it clips and audio informations included in a.3gp file is compressed significantly. Within the.3gp bundle, film can be encoded with specific film codecs specified by the 3GPP. FFMPEG Encoding and Zencoder cloud based Encoding API support.3gp, .mp4 files with the H.263, MPEG-4, and H.264 film codecs.





Bit rate


Video teleconference over ISDN

64 Kbs


Video on digital storage media

( CD-ROM )

1.5 Mbs


Digital Television

2-20 Mbs


Video telephone over PSTN

& gt ; 34 Kbs


Multimedia over cyberspace, Object based cryptography


H.264/MPEG- 4

Improved picture compaction

10’s-100 ‘s Kbs

C. Video Streaming restrictions

Video cyclosis is constrained by the web channel capacity, 3G-324M channel bandwidth, Multi-coded watercourse, Transcoding, Packet loss, Bandwidth direction and end point capablenesss.

V. Video Streaming Techniques

There are assorted streaming techniques for different Mobiles, Smartphone describe below:

A. Progressive Download

The nomadic client has the option to utilize HTTP or HTTPS to bit by bit download a pre-created imperativeness informations file partitioned in the appropriate codecs for the merchandise to play. As the information file starts to bit by bit download, play-back is started enabling an about immediate observation of the stuff [ 8 ] . In the makings, the imperativeness gamer is invariably on the download the remainder of the stuff. By comparing, without modern download the user would hold to wait for the whole informations file to obtain to the merchandise before watching would get down. During the play-back procedure, audiences are able to seek back and Forth through the whole imperativeness informations file. If the audience looks for forward to a point in the agenda that has non yet downloadable, the imperativeness gamer halt play-back until the informations comes.

B. HTTP Live Streaming

HTTP Live cyclosis ( besides known as HLS ) is anA HTTP-basedA media streaming communications protocolA implemented byA Apple Inc.A as portion of theirA QuickTime XA andA iPhone. Apple ‘s HTTP Live Streaming protocol ( HLS ) , is an adaptative cyclosis picture bringing protocol for iOS devices. It utilizes the H.264 picture codec, which is segmented and encapsulated in MPEG2 conveyance watercourses, and.M3U8 index files to present unrecorded and on-demand picture. The device automatically selects the most appropriate watercourse given available bandwidth, CPU and platform restraints, downloads a manifest for that watercourse, and so downloads segmented balls to the buffer for the playback.

HLS streaming provides the best user experience, but its benefits besides include good IT patterns and of import concern considerations:

The best user experience: Since the waiter can keep multiple versions of the picture cartridge holders in different formats, an iPad user with a Wi-Fi connexion can stream a higher choice version of the picture than an iPhone user screening over a 3G connexion.

Reach more viewing audiences: Routers, NAT, and firewall scenes are more likely to back up picture delivered with HTTP than other transportation protocols, so more users will be able to entree your picture.

Salvage on informations transportation: As opposed to a progressive download of a picture, with HLS, merely a few sections of picture are downloaded at clip. If a spectator merely watches five proceedingss of streamed picture, publishing houses merely pay for that information transportation. Furthermore, the HTTP balls are cacheable by CDNs and across web substructure, so files are served from an beginning waiter merely one time and cached near to users.

Secure picture content: The HLS specification has commissariats to guarantee security of the watercourse, which is great intelligence for broadcasters or publishing houses who want to stream accredited content. The full HLS watercourse can be encrypted utilizing AES-128.

Fig. 2 and Explanation, shows my practical work for nomadic picture streaming on Cloud with streaming waiter by utilizing Amazon CloudFront services which have tonss of constituents which are playing cardinal function.

Explanation of R & A ; D work

Live cyclosis with Amazon Web Services allows you to utilize the characteristics of Adobe Flash Media Server version 4.5, including unrecorded picture streaming where your unrecorded picture is delivered by a series of HTTP petitions from the participant that is controlled by manifest files. Flash Media Server 4.5 supports two HTTP file formats: HLS ( HTTP Live Streaming ) for Io devices and HDS ( HTTP Dynamic Streaming ) for Flash applications. You can stream high-quality media utilizing the free Flash Media Live Encoder desktop application either for Windows or for Mac OS.

CloudFront content bringing service would back up on-demand RTMP cyclosis from Flash Media Server 4.5. In pattern, this offers a new, flexible low-priced CDN solution, peculiarly for users with comparatively little or intermittent streaming bringing demands. AWS charges merely for spots stored and spots transferred. There ‘s no monthly lower limit, no mark up fee or apparatus fees, and no on-going costs unless you ‘re really utilizing the service [ 10 ] .

In this illustration, we will walk through the stairss of puting up CloudFront cyclosis and acquiring it working on your site:

Set up an AWS Simple Storage Service ( S3 ) history where content will populate.

Make a “ pail ” in S3 to hive away media files.

Shift content to S3 pail and put its permissions to let public entree.

Set up a CloudFront streaming distribution that point at S3 storage pail.

Now you are ready to stream.

CloudFront uses Adobe Flash Media Server 4.5 to stream on-demand content with Adobe ‘s Real-time Messaging Protocol ( RTMP ) . CloudFront accepts RTMP petitions over port 1935 and port 80.

CloudFront supports the undermentioned discrepancies of the RTMP protocol:

RTMP-Adobe ‘s Real-time Message Protocol

RTMPT-Adobe cyclosis tunneled over HTTP

RTMPE-Adobe encrypted over HTTP

RTMPTE-Adobe encrypted tunneled over HTTP

To procure it, merely utilize the RTMPE protocol alternatively of the regular RTMP.


Fig. 2 CloudFront Live cyclosis architecture

Many reputed IT companies are utilizing HTTP Live streaming service to heighten the streaming power in their nomadic sphere substructure.

Adobe Systems established an update to its Adobe Flash Media Server merchandise back uping HTTP Live cyclosis.

Livestation streams legion Television channels such as France 24, RT, and Al Jazeera English.

Microsoft added support for HTTP Live Streaming in IIS Media Services 4.5.

Google added HTTP Live streaming support in Android 3.0 Honeycomb.

HP added HTTP Live streaming support in webOS 3.0.5.

FFMPEG added HTTP Live Streaming and Encoding support for assorted nomadic devices [ 11 ] [ 12 ] .

Zencoder Cloud based Encoding API added HTTP Live streaming support for iPad, iPod Touch and Apple TV [ 13 ] .

VI. Decision

In this paper, we have discussed foremost in audio/video rudimentss which deliver picture on web with required bandwidth and codecs so after we discussed about the picture streaming architecture that develop streaming waiters which are responsible for recovering, directing and accommodating the picture watercourse informations in 3G or others web.

For streaming the multimedia file over web, picture compaction techniques are major issue to encode the different types of audio/video file for different nomadic devices. Compaction can be performed by FFMPEG Encoding ; Zencoder cloud based Encoding API which provides tonss of Encoding techniques which are solution for the cloud based environments.

Then we presented the chief issue of video streaming techniques for streaming the picture over the cyberspace or cloud based web for iPhone, Android, Window phone and Smartphone. Apple Company provides the solution for picture cyclosis in footings of HTTP Live cyclosis which are accepted by many reputed companies for nomadic devices for picture streaming intent for future position by utilizing RTMP household protocols.

I believe that a batch of attempt should be done in this paper to suggest efficient and feasible solution for nomadic picture streaming in cloud based environment.


There are some cardinal personalities involved, whose function has been really critical to pave manner for success of the paper. I take the chance to show my sincere thanks and gratitude to them.

I would wish to thank R & A ; D squad members of Pariksha Labs Pvt. Ltd, Gurgaon, India. Last but non the least, I would wish to widen my heartfelt respects to all those who helped me straight or indirectly in the achievement of the paper.

Cite this page

Cloud Based Mobile Video Streaming Techniques Computer Science Essay. (2020, Jun 01). Retrieved from

Cloud Based Mobile Video Streaming Techniques Computer Science Essay

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