Classical Conditioning

Behaviourism & Physiological
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The behaviourism perspective of human behaviour focuses on a stimulus-to-response basis deducing that the environment directly determines behaviour. Its main features centre on behaviours adopted by operant conditioning, classical conditioning and social learning. Behaviourists use quantitative data from experiments and observation as research methods, because they believe that psychology should be scientific and behaviour must be measurable. Classical conditioning is a behavioural theory developed by Ivan Pavlov in the 1930’s theorising that we learn behaviour by association, he observed a…...
Classical Conditioning
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Classical conditioning is an association between two stimuli; It is what proceeds the response. The two stimuli in my experiment was the ringing of the bell and the on and off of the light switch performed in a dark room. During my experiment I rang the bell and then immediately turned off the lights. I remained in the dark for fifteen seconds then turned the light back on. I left the light on for fifteen seconds, and would monitor my…...
Consumer Behavior Case Study Do Our Avatars Learn
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1) According to the text, classical conditioning occurs when a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not elicit a response on its own. As time passes, the second stimulus is able to cause a similar response because of the fact that we associate it with the first stimulus. An example of classical conditioning would be one that was demonstrated by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. He conducted research on digestion in dogs. Pavlov was…...
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The Science of Behaviour
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Different authors have different perspectives on classical conditioning, yet they agree on one aspect which is common, that it is a natural sequence of events; an unconscious, uncontrolled, and unlearned relationship. Comer (2004) defines classical conditioning as a process of learning by temporal association in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become fused in a person's mind and produce the same response. Conditioned stimulus or CS, comes to signal the occurrence of a second stimulus, the…...
Conditioned Fear Response: How to extinguish it?
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John B. Watson and Rosalie Rayner carried one of the most significant psychology studies out in 1920. The reason it is such a landmark study is because Watson was able to show that emotional responses could be conditioned, or learned. Preceding Watson, Freud and James believed in instinctual systems. Freud thought there were two types of instincts, sexual and life- preservation. James, however, claimed there were many more innate instincts. Conversely, Watson stressed the importance of environmental factors on behavior.…...
What Is Classical Conditioning?
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Classical conditioning is one of the very improtnat aspects as it can help to predict huiman behavior and hence can be applied in various fields. It was developed by the Russian Scientist and researcher Ivan Pavlov, who was trained in biology and medicine. The scientist was interested in studying the digestive system of dog, and it was only by coincidence hat he concentrated on the behavioral aspects of the dogs during his study. He observed that whenever he walked into…...
Conditioning Procedures in Shaping Children’s Behaviour
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A child is repeatedly exhibiting inappropriate and unwanted behaviour (e.g. hitting sibling), which conditioning procedures could be used to most effectively stop this? Behaviours that produce favourable consequences are repeated and become habits, but those that produce unfavourable consequences tend not to recur (Ouellette and Wood, 1998 as cited in Martin et.al, 2006). Experience changes the probability of repeating certain behaviours indicating that learning involves adaptation. As time goes on, old behaviours are eliminated and new behaviours are learned. Pavlov…...
Learning Experience Paper
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In this paper I will discuss my learning experiences and analyze them with the perspective of learning theories. I will analyze my learning experiences with regards to classical conditioning, operant conditioning and cognitive- social learning theory. First of all, I would begin by describing my experience of learning to fear lizards with regards to classical conditioning. To give some context to the situation, I was raised in India where lizards, usually in large numbers, are often found on walls particularly…...
Learning process in behaviour
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Learning is a permanent change in behaviour caused by experience. The learner does not need to have the experience directly; we can also learn by observing others . It is an ongoing process. Our knowledge of the world is continually being revised as we are exposed to new stimuli and receiving ongoing feedback that allows us to modify our behaviour when we find ourselves in a similar position again Psychologists who have studied learning have developed advanced therories on the…...
What is “Learning”?
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What is "Learning"? Discuss "classical conditioning" and "instrumental conditioning", and explain, with examples, their applications to marketing practice. Learning is a relatively permanently change in behavior caused by experience. It is an ongoing process, our knowledge about the world is being revised constantly as we are exposed to new stimuli and receive feedback that allows us to modify our behavior. Behaviorial learning theories assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external events. Psychologist approach the mind…...
Acquisition of Prejudice as Social Issue
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The word 'prejudice' comes from the Latin word pre-judicium, which means 'pre-judgment'. Without examining a person on his or her own worth, one has already adopted a negative attitude that implies a judgment. A prejudice is a mixture of beliefs and feelings that predisposes people to respond positively or negatively to members of a particular group. Prejudice is defined as a positive or negative attitude based on information or knowledge that is either irrational, unrelated to reality, or a distortion…...
Skinner’s Behavioral Theory of Reward
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When you think of punishment and reward you think of a reaction; but man has come up with theories of why we do the things that we can do. Conditioning and learning is defined as change in behavior, which is resulted by different types of practices and experiences. In this report the main topics will be classical conditioning, operant conditioning, cognitive-social learning, and neuroscience and evolution. Every time we do something good or bad the outcome determines our reactions in…...
Classical conditioning/ systematic desensitization essay
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“Use classical conditioning principles to explain the development of phobias, and describe how systematic desensitization can be used to overcome fears and phobias. Illustrate with examples.” This essay explores the practices of classical conditioning and systematic desensitization in relation to phobias and fears. John Watson proposed that the process of classical conditioning was able to ‘’explain all aspects of human psychology’’. Classical conditioning is the form of learning in which one stimulus is paired with another so that the organism…...
Changing Behavior Case Study Analysis
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A client approached me because he has a serious problem with procrastination. My client has procrastinated most activities that were not comfortable or enjoyable for as far back as he can remember. Procrastinated activities include but are not limited to paying bills, doing homework assignments, making progress on assigned projects in the office, buying presents for birthdays or holidays and scheduling just about anything. Due to this undesirable behavior my client has lost a few jobs, failed out of school…...
Classical Conditioning and Pros and Cons of Punishment
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Classical conditioning is a form of behavioral learning and was first introduced when Ivan Pavlov came upon a study when he was studying the psychology of digestion in dogs. He noticed that the dogs would not just begin salivating when the meat powder was introduced, but also when the person responsible for feeding would enter the room or heard there footsteps. Classical conditioning is when two stimuli are presented in close succession repeatedly, until the response given to one becomes…...
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FAQ about Classical Conditioning

Conditioned Fear Response: How to extinguish it?

...Thus, we know from subsequent studies that, unlike other conditioned responses, fear responses do not tend to extinguish. The main reason for this is that once people become afraid of something, they tend to avoid it. When they avoid it, there is no ...

What Is Classical Conditioning?

...For example in the sale of cars, men usually are interested in buying cars. Many companies are using young models to unconditionally stimulate men who develop an unconditional response towards these girls. The association between cars and girls, put ...

What is “Learning”?

...Classical conditioning occurs when a stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that initially does not response on it own. Over time, this second stimulus causes a response because it is associated with the first stimulus. This...
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