cicero in verrem translation

Aspendum vetus oppidum et nobile in Pamphylia scitis esse, plenissimum signorum optimorum. Non dicam illinc hoc signum ablatum esse et illud: hoc dico, nullum te Aspendi signum, Verres, reliquisse, omnia ex fanis, ex locis publicis, palam, spectantibus omnibus, plaustris evecta exportataque esse. Atque etiam illum Aspendium citharistam, de quo saepe audistis id quod est Graecis hominibus in proverbio, quem omnia ‘intus canere’ dicebant, sustulit et in intimis suis aedibus posuit, ut etiam illum ipsum suo artificio superasse videatur.
You know that Aspendus is an ancient and noble town in Pamphylia, very full of excellent statues. I will not say that one statue or another was taken from that place: I say this, that you Verres, left not one statue at Aspendus, everything from the temples, from the public places, openly, with everyone watching, was snatched and carried away in wagons. And he even took away that lyre player of Aspendus, about which you often hear the saying which is proverbial among Greek men, the Greeks that used to say that he ‘sang everything to himself’, he lifted up and put in the innermost part of his temple, so that he might even seem to have surpassed that object with his own trick.

Pergae fanum antiquissimum et sanctissimum Dianae scimus esse: id quoque a te nudatum ac spoliatum esse, ex ipsa Diana quod habebat auri detractum atque ablatum esse dico.
Quae, malum, est ista tanta audacia atque amentia! Quas enim sociorum atque amicorum urbis adisti legationis iure et nomine, si in eas vi cum exercitu imperioque invasisses, tamen, opinor, quae signa atque ornamenta ex iis urbibus sustulisses, haec non in tuam domum neque in suburbana amicorum, sed Romam in publicum deportasses.
At Perga we know that there is a very holy and very ancient temple of Diana: I say that also was stripped and robbed by you, from the statue of Diana herself all the gold which she had was taken off and stolen.

What the devil is this great boldness and insanity! For you have come to the cities of our allies and friends under the pretext and military power of your office; I think, rather, if you had stormed these cities with force, military power and an army, the statues and ornaments, which you had removed from those cities, you would not have carried into your own house, nor the suburban houses of your friends, but for public use in Rome.

Quid ego de M. Marcello loquar, qui Syracusas, urbem ornatissimam, cepit? quid de L. Scipione, qui bellum in Asia gessit Antiochumque, regem potentissimum, vicit? quid de Flaminino, qui regem Philippum et Macedoniam subegit? quid de L. Paulo, qui regem Persen vi ac virtute superavit? quid de L. Mummio, qui urbem pulcherrimam atque ornatissimam, Corinthum, plenissimam rerum omnium, sustulit, urbisque Achaiae Boeotiaeque multas sub imperium populi Romani dicionemque subiunxit? Quorum domus, cum honore ac virtute florerent, signis et tabulis pictis erant vacuae; at vero urbem totam templaque deorum omnesque Italiae partes illorum donis ac monumentis exornatas videmus.
What shall I say about Marcus Marcellus, who captured Syracuse, the most magnificent city? What shall I say about Lucius Scipio, who waged war in Asia and conquered Antiochus, the most powerful king? What shall I say about Flaminius, who subdued King Phillip and Maccedonia? What shall I say about Lucius Paulus, who defeated King Perses with force and virtue? What shall I say about Lucius Mummius, who destroyed the most beautiful and most magnificent city, Corinth, most full of everything, and subjected many cities of Achia and Boeotia and swaying under the military power of the Roman People?Their homes, whilst flourishing with virtue and honour, were empty of statues and paintings; but indeed we see the whole city and the temples of the gods and all the parts of Italy adorned with their gifts and monuments.

Vereor ne haec forte cuipiam nimis antiqua et iam obsoleta videantur; ita enim tum aequabiliter omnes erant eius modi ut haec laus eximiae virtutis et innocentiae non solum hominum, verum etiam temporum illorum esse videatur. P. Servilius, vir clarissimus, maximis rebus gestis, adest de te sententiam laturus: Olympum vi, copiis, consilio, virtute cepit, urbem antiquam et omnibus rebus auctam et ornatam. Recens exemplum fortissimi viri profero; nam postea Servilius imperator populi Romani Olympum urbem hostium cepit quam tu in isdem illis locis legatus quaestorius oppida pacata sociorum atque amicorum diripienda ac vexanda curasti.
I fear that perhaps these things might seem to some too ancient and now obsolete; therefore at that time all people without distinction were of such a kind that this praise of excellent virtue and innocence did not seem to only belong to these men , but even indeed seem real for all men of that time. Publius Servilius, a very famous man, having achieved very great things, is here intending to present his opinion of you: he seized with force, with troops, with his cunning, with virtue, the ancient city Olympus, strengthened and destroyed with everything. I am bringing forward a recent example of a very brave man as evidence; for Servilius as a general of the Roman people took Olympus, the city of the enemy after you, as the quaestorean legate in the same region, had taken care to destroy and plunder the pacified towns of our allies and friends.

Tu quae ex fanis religiosissimis per scelus et latrocinium abstulisti, ea nos videre nisi in tuis amicorumque tuorum tectis non possumus: P. Servilius quae signa atque ornamenta ex urbe hostium vi et virtute capta belli lege atque imperatorio iure sustulit, ea populo Romano adportavit, per triumphum vexit, in tabula publica ad aerarium perscribenda curavit. Cognoscite ex litteris publicis hominis amplissimi diligentiam. Recita. RATIONES RELATAE P. SERVILI. Non solum numerum signorum, sed etiam unius cuiusque magnitudinem, figuram, statum litteris definiri vides. Certe maior est virtutis victoriaeque iucunditas quam ista voluptas quae percipitur ex libidine et cupiditate. Multo diligentius habere dico Servilium praedam populi Romani quam te tua furta notata atque perscripta.
We cannot see them, that which you stole from the most religious temples through wickedness and robbery, except on your and your friends’ houses: Publius Servilius lifted up the statues and ornaments, which he took from the cities of the enemy with force and virtue having been captured by the law of war and authority of a general, he brought them for the Roman people, he carried them through triumph, he took care of writing up records in full in the public treasury. Know from the public records the effort of this very great man. Read the accounts written by Publius Servilius. Not only do you see that the number of statues, but even the size, figure and condition of each one of them are defined by the records. Certainly the delight of virtue and victory that is felt is greater than that pleasure which is felt from lust and greed. I say that Servilius has the booty of the Roman people marked and written up much more carefully than your theft.

Dices tua quoque signa et tabulas pictas ornamento urbi foroque populi Romani fuisse. Memini; vidi simul cum populo Romano forum comitiumque adornatum ad speciem magnifico ornatu, ad sensum cogitationemque acerbo et lugubri; vidi conlucere omnia furtis tuis, praeda provinciarum, spoliis sociorum atque amicorum. Quo quidem tempore, iudices, iste spem maximam reliquorum quoque peccatorum nactus est; vidit enim eos qui iudiciorum se dominos dici volebant harum cupiditatum esse servos.
You will say that your statues and paintings were also a form of decoration for the city and for the forum of the Roman people. I remember; I, along with the Roman people, saw the forum and the comitium decorated with ornaments which in appearance were magnificent, but in terms of feeling and understanding were bitter and mournful; I saw that everything was glittering with your thievery, with the plunder of the provinces, with the spoils of our allies and friends.
At that time indeed, oh gentlemen of the jury, that man obtained his greatest hope of his other crimes as well; for he saw that these men, who wished to be called masters of the law courts were slaves to these desires.

Socii vero nationesque exterae spem omnem tum primum abiecerunt rerum ac fortunarum suarum, propterea quod casu legati ex Asia atque Achaia plurimi Romae tunc fuerunt, qui deorum simulacra ex suis fanis sublata in foro venerabantur, itemque cetera signa et ornamenta cum cognoscerent, alia alio in loco lacrimantes intuebantur. Quorum omnium hunc sermonem tum esse audiebamus, nihil esse quod quisquam dubitaret de exitio sociorum atque amicorum, cum quidem viderent in foro populi Romani, quo in loco antea qui sociis iniurias fecerant accusari et condemnari solebant, ibi esse palam posita ea quae ab sociis per scelus ablata ereptaque essent.
Allies and indeed those of foreign birth then first abandoned all their hope [of saving] their property and their fortunes, for the good reason that as it happened there were, at that time very many ambassadors from Asia and Achia at Rome, who were worshipping in the forum the statues of the gods which had been stolen from their temples, and likewise when they recognised the other statues and ornaments, weeping they saw some statues in one place and others elsewhere. We used to hear this kind of conversation of all of these men, that there was nothing which anyone could doubt about the destruction of our allies and friends when in fact they saw in the forum of the Roman people, where before those who committed outrages against their allies were accustomed to be accused and condemned, those things there openly placed which had been snatched and taken away by the allies through wickedness.

Hic ego non arbitror illum negaturum signa se plurima, tabulas pictas innumerabiles habere; sed, ut opinor, solet haec quae rapuit et furatus est non numquam dicere se emisse, quoniam quidem in Achaiam, Asiam, Pamphyliam sumptu publico et legationis nomine mercator signorum tabularumque pictarum missus est. et istius et patris eius accepi tabulas omnes, quas diligentissime legi atque digessi, patris, quoad vixit, tuas, quoad ais te confecisse. Nam in isto, iudices, hoc novum reperietis. Audimus aliquem tabulas numquam confecisse; quae est opinio hominum de Antonio falsa, nam fecit diligentissime; verum sit hoc genus aliquod, minime probandum. Audimus alium non ab initio fecisse, sed ex tempore aliquo confecisse; est aliqua etiam huiusce rei ratio. Hoc vero
novum et ridiculum est, quod hic nobis respondit cum ab eo tabulas postularemus, usque ad M. Terentium et C. Cassium consules confecisse, postea destitisse.
At this point I do not think that he will deny that he has very many statues and countless paintings; but, as I believe, he is accustomed at times to say that he bought those things that he seized and stole, since in fact he was sent into Achaia, Asia and Pamphylia at the public’s expense and with the title of ambassador as a merchant of statues and paintings. I received all the accounts of that man and his father, which I have most diligently read and studied, those of your father, as long as he lived, yours, for as long as you say you completed them. For in that man, jurors, you will discover a new phenomenon. We hear that some men have never kept accounts; this is a false opinion of men with respect to Antonius for he kept accounts most diligently; there may be people of that kind but they should not be approved of in any way, we hear that some men did not start them from the beginning, but kept them from some time; there is some reason behind even such conduct as this. The response that this man gave us is unprecedented and ridiculous when we asked for the accounts from him [he said that] he had kept accounts up to the consulship of Marcus Terentius and Gaius Cassius, but after that he stopped.

Alio loco hoc cuius modi sit considerabimus; nunc nihil ad me attinet; horum enim temporum in quibus nunc versor habeo tabulas et tuas et patris. Plurima signa pulcherrima, plurimas tabulas optimas deportasse te negare non potes. Atque utinam neges! Unum ostende in tabulis aut tu aut patris tui emptum esse:vicisti. Ne haec quidem duo signa pulcherrima quae nunc ad impluvium tuum stant, quae multos annos ante valvas Iunonis Samiae steterunt, habes quo modo emeris, haec, inquam, duo quae in aedibus tuis sola iam sunt, quae sectorem exspectant, relicta ac destituta a ceteris signis.
We will consider what sort of behavior this is in another place. At this time it is not a concern to me; for of the times in which I am now living, I have the accounts, both yours and your fathers. You cannot deny that you carried off very many most beautiful statues, very many excellent paintings. I wish that you would deny it! Show in your father’s account that one of them was bought: you have won your case! However you don’t even have information about or a proper explanation of how you purchased two of the most beautiful statues that now stand near to your impluvium, which for many years were standing before the double doors of Samian Juno, you have no way in which you will buy, these two, I say, which are now alone in your house, which are waiting for a broker, abandoned and deserted by all the other statues.

At, credo, in hisce solis rebus indomitas cupiditates atque effrenatas habebat: ceterae libidines eius ratione aliqua aut modo continebantur. Quam multis istum ingenuis, quam multis matribus familias in illa taetra atque impura legatione vim attulisse existimatis? Ecquo in oppido pedem posuit ubi non plura stuprorum flagitiorumque suorum quam adventus sui vestigia reliquerit? Sed ego omnia quae negari poterunt praetermittam; etiam haec quae certissima sunt et clarissima relinquam; unum aliquod de nefariis istius factis eligam, quo facilius ad Siciliam possim aliquando, quae mihi hoc oneris negotique imposuit, pervenire.
But, I believe that, in these matters alone he had ungovernable and unrestrained desires: the rest of his lusts were being controlled by some limit or reason. Against how many free-born girls, against how many matrons do you think he committed violence in that foul and obscene career of his as a legate? Is there any town in which he set foot where his dishonor and disgrace where he did not leave more signs of his rape and disgrace than of his own arrival? But I will make no mention of all which can be denied; even those which are most certain and most clear I will leave out; I will chose one of those wicked crimes, so that I may be able to arrive at Sicily more easily, which has imposed this heavy task and trouble on me.

[63] Oppidum est in Hellesponto Lampsacum, iudices, in primis Asiae provinciae clarum et nobile; homines autem ipsi Lampsaceni cum summe in omnes cives Romanos officiosi, tum praeterea maxime sedati et quieti, prope praeter ceteros ad summum Graecorum otium potius quam ad ullam vim aut tumultum adcommodati. Accidit, cum iste a Cn. Dolabella efflagitasset ut se
ad regem Nicomedem regemque Sadalam mitteret, cumque iter hoc sibi magis ad quaestum suum quam ad rei publicae tempus adcommodatum depoposcisset, ut illo itinere veniret Lampsacum cum magna calamitate et prope pernicie civitatis. Deducitur iste ad lanitorem quendam hospitem, comitesque eius item apud ceteros hospites conlocantur. Ut mos erat istius, atque ut eum suae libidines flagitiosae facere admonebant, statim negotium dat illis suis comitibus, nequissimis turpissimisque hominibus, uti vi deant et investigent ecqua virgo sit aut mulier digna quam ob rem ipse Lampsaci diutius commoraretur.
There is a town in the Hellespont, Lampsacus,gentlemen of the jury, among the first in the province of Asia in fame and nobility; the men of Lampsacus themselves are not only intensely attentive towards all the Roman citizens but also are very calm and orderly besides, almost exceeding the rest of the Greeks in being inclined towards their extreme leisure rather than towards any force of tumult. It happened that when that man had demanded from Cnaeus Dolabella that he send him to king Nicomedes and King Sadala, when he demanded this journey more for himself, for his own profit rather than for the benefit of the republic. On that journey he came to Lampsacus brining with him great calamity and near ruin of the state. That man was escorted to a certain host, Janitor, and his comrades where also put up amongst other hosts. As was the custom of that man and as his disgusting lusts encouraged him to do, at once he gave a task to his companions, the most worthless and disgusting men, to see and investigate wether there was any virgin or woman worth him staying any longer at Lampsacus for.

[64] Erat comes eius Rubrius quidam, homo factus ad istius libidines, qui miro artificio, quocumque venerat, haec investigare omnia solebat. Is ad eum rem istam defert, Philodamum esse quendam, genere, honore, copiis, existimatione facile principem Lampsacenorum; eius esse filiam, quae cum patre habitaret propterea quod virum non haberet, mulierem eximia pulchritudine; sed eam summa integritate pudicitiaque existimari. Homo, ut haec audivit, sic exarsit ad id
quod non modo ipse numquam viderat, sed ne audierat quidem ab eo qui ipse vidisset, ut statim ad Philodamum migrare se diceret velle. Hospes lanitor, qui nihil suspicaretur, veritus ne quid in ipso se offenderetur, hominem summa vi retinere coepit. Iste, qui hospitis relinquendi causam reperire non posset, alia sibi ratione viam munire ad stuprum coepit; Rubrium, delicias suas, in omnibus eius modi rebus adiutorem suum et conscium, parum laute deversari dicit; ad Philodamum deduci iubet.
64
There was a certain friend of his, Rubrius, a man made for the lusts of that man, who with marvelous skill, to wherever he had come, was accustomed to investigate everything.That man reported this matter to him, that there was a certain Philodamus, easily the leading citizen of Lampsacus with his lineage, with honour, with troops and in opinion; his daughter was a woman of exceptional beauty, who was living with her father for the reason that she did not have a husband; but she was thought to be of the utmost integrity and modesty. The man, as he heard this, blazed up in this way in response to something which he had not only never seen himself but that he had not even heard from someone who had seen her himself, at once he said that he wanted to move to the house of Philodamus.
His host, Janitor, who suspected nothing, having feared that he must have given him some offense himself, began to hold the man back with all his might; that man,who was not able to find a good reason for leaving his host, began to create for himself another root towards his shameful desire; he said that Rubrius, his darling, his helper and friend in the know in all such matters, was lodged with too little comfort. He ordered him to be escorted to the house of Philodamus.

65] Quod ubi est Philodamo nuntiatum, tametsi erat ignarus quantum sibi ac liberis suis iam tum mali constitueretur, tamen ad istum venit; ostendit munus illud suum non esse; se, cum suae partes essent hospitum recipiendorum, tum ipsos tamen praetores et consules, non legatorum adseculas, recipere solere. Iste, qui una cupiditate raperetur, totum illius postulatum causamque neglexit; per vim ad eum, qui recipere non debebat, Rubrium deduci imperavit. Hic Philodamus, posteaquam ius suum obtinere non potuit, ut humanitatem consuetudinemque suam retineret laborabat. Homo, qui semper hospitalissimus amicissimusque nostrorum hominum existimatus esset, noluit videri ipsum illum Rubrium invitus domum suam recepisse; magnifice et ornate, ut erat in primis inter suos copiosus, convivium comparat; rogat Rubrium
ut quos ei commodum sit invitet, locum sibi soli, si videatur, relinquat; etiam filium suum, lectissimum adulescentem, foras ad propinquum suum quendam mittit ad cenam.
65
When this was reported to Philodamus, although unaware of how much evil was being organized for him and his children, he came however to that man; he showed that it was not his duty; he, when he had welcomed his guests, on such occasions he was accustomed to receive the praetors and consuls themselves, not the followers of the legates. That man, who was seized by one desire, totally disregarded the whole demand and reason of that man; he ordered that Rubrius be escorted forcefully to Philodamus, who was not under any obligation to refuse to host him. At this point Philodamus, as soon as he could not preserve his rights, was working to uphold his humanity and friendship. The man, who always had been considered most hospitable and most friendly towards our people, did not want to seem to have received Rubrius into his house unwillingly; he arranged a feast magnificently and elaborately as he was especially wealthy among his fellow citizens; he asked Rubrius to invite those who were suitable of him, if he would like to , to reserve a place for himself alone; he even sent his son, a most excellent young man, to a close relative for dinner.

[66] Rubrius istius comites invitat; eos omnis Verres certiores facit quid opus esset. Mature veniunt, discumbitur. Fit sermo inter eos, et invitatio ut Graeco more biberetur; hortatur hospes, poscunt maioribus poculis, celebratur omnium sermone laetitiaque convivium. Posteaquam satis calere res Rubrio visa est, “Quaeso”, inquit, “Philodame, cur ad nos filiam tuam non intro vocari iubes?” Homo, qui et summa gravitate et iam id aetatis et parens esset, obstipuit hominis improbi dicto. Instare Rubrius. Tum ille, ut aliquid responderet, negavit moris esse Graecorum ut in convivio virorum accumberent mulieres. Hic tum alius ex alia parte, “Enim vero ferendum hoc quidem non est; vocetur mulier!” et simul servis suis Rubrius ut ianuam clauderent et ipsi ad foris adsisterent imperat.
66
Rubrius invited that man’s companions, Verres informed them all of the tasks that needed to be done. They came early and took their places at the table. There was conversation amongst them, and an invitation to drink in the manner of the Greeks; the host encouraged them, they demanded wine in larger cups, the feast was celebrated with the conversation and joy of everyone. After the event appeared to Rubrius to be sufficiently hotting up, he said ‘I ask you Philodamus, why do you not order your daughter to be called inside to us here?’ The man, who was a man of both the utmost seriousness and now at that age and as a parent was shocked by the words of the shameless man. Rubrius pressed on. Then he, in order to reply something, said that it was not the custom of the Greeks that women take place at the table of a feast of men. At this point then people from here and there started shouting ‘come on, this is truly intolerable; let the woman be summoned!’ and at once Rubrius ordered his slaves to shut the door and take their position by the doors themselves.

[67] Quod ubi ille intellexit, id agi atque id parari ut filiae suae vis adferretur, servos suos ad se vocat; his imperat ut se ipsum neglegant, filiam defendant; excurrat aliquis qui hoc tantum domestici mali filio nuntiet. Clamor interea fit tota domo; inter servos Rubri atque hospitis iactatur domi suae vir primarius et homo honestissimus; pro se quisque manus adfert; aqua denique ferventi
a Rubrio ipso Philodamus perfunditur. Haec ubi filio nuntiata sunt, statim exanimatus ad aedis contendit, ut et vitae patris et pudicitiae sororis succurreret; omnes eodem animo Lampsaceni, simul ut hoc audierunt, quod eos cum Philodami dignitas tum iniuriae magnitudo movebat, ad aedis noctu convenerunt. Hic lictor istius Cornelius, qui cum eius servis erat a Rubrio quasi in praesidio ad auferendam mulierem conlocatus, occiditur; servi non nulli vulnerantur; ipse Rubrius in turba sauciatur. Iste, qui sua cupiditate tantos tumultus concitatos videret, cupere aliqua evolare, si posset.
67
When he understood this, that this plan was being instigated to violate his daughter, he called his slaves to him; he ordered them to neglect him, but to defend his daughter; someone should run out to tell his son about this terrible evil in his home. Meanwhile there was uproar throughout the house, a fight broke out between Rubrius’ slaves and the slaves of his host, this eminent man and very honest human being was thrown around his own home; each man fought for himself; finally Philodamus was drenched in boiling water by Rubrius himself. When these things were announced to his son, at once he, paralysed with fear, hurried to the house, in order to save his father’s life and his sister’s chastity, all of the Lampsacenes, with the same spirit, as soon as they heard this, because they were not only moved by Philodamus’ dignity but also by the enormity of the outrage, they gathered at the house by night. At this point Cornelius the attendant of that man, who had been stationed by Rubrius with Verres’ slaves, as if on guard duty to carry off the woman, some slaves were wounded; Rubrius himself was injured in the struggle. That man, who has seen so much uproar stirred up by his lusts, wanted to run away somewhere if he could.

[68] Postridie homines mane in contionem conveniunt; quaerunt quid optimum factu sit; pro se quisque, ut in quoque erat auctoritatis plurimum, ad populum loquebatur; inventus est nemo cuius non haec et sententia esset et oratio, non esse metuendum, si istius nefarium scelus Lampsaceni ulti vi manuque essent,
ne senatus populusque Romanus in eam civitatem animadvertendum putaret; quodsi hoc iure legati populi Romani in socios nationesque exteras uterentur, ut pudicitiam liberorum servare ab eorum libidine tutam non liceret, quidvis esse perpeti satius quam in tanta vi atque acerbitate versari.
68
On the next day the men came together in the morning for a public meeting; they explored for what it was best to do; each man, according to how much authority he had, addressed the people on his own behalf; no one was found who didn’t have this opinion and speech, that if the Lampsacenes were to avenge the wicked crime of that man with force and violence, they should not fear that the senate and people of Rome would think about punishing that city; but if the legates of the Roman people employed this law against the allies and foreign nations they would not be allowed to keep the modesty of their children safe from their lust, it would be better to spend one’s life in such force and cruelty.

[69] Haec cum omnes sentirent, et cum in eam rationem pro suo quisque sensu ac dolore loqueretur, omnes ad eam domum in qua iste deversabatur profecti sunt; caedere ianuam saxis, instare ferro, ligna et sarmenta circumdare ignemque subicere coeperunt. Tunc cives Romani, qui Lampsaci negotiabantur, concurrunt; orant Lampsacenos ut gravius apud eos nomen legationis quam iniuria legati putaretur; sese intellegere hominem illum esse impurum ac nefarium, sed quoniam nec perfecisset quod conatus esset, neque futurus esset Lampsaci postea, levius eorum peccatum fore si
homini scelerato pepercissent quam si legato non pepercissent.1
69
Since all felt these things and since each person spoke in support of this reasoning on account of his feeling of grief, everyone set out for that home in which this man was lodging, they began to smash down the door with rocks, to attach with iron swords, to place wood and brushwood around it, and to force fire beneath it. Then the Roman citizens, who were doing business in Lampsacus, ran together. They begged the Lampsacenes yo consider the name of the legate rather than the injustices of the legate, [they said that] they themselves understood that that man was morally foul and wicked, but since he had not carried out that which he had tried to do and because he was unlikely to be in Lampsacus in the future, their sin would be lighter if they spared a wicked man rather than if they did not spare a legate.

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