Church History: Chapter 2 and Sacraments
Alexander the great
Conquered and controlled land from Greece to India. He spread Hellenism to all the places he conquered. Became king in 336 BC
Phillip of Macedon
had already created a unity among the various Greek city-states which would enable Alexander to not only hold off the invasions of the West from the Persian kingdom, but also would enable Alexander to move this massive army across the world, eventually ruling from the Greece to the Himalayan Mountains.
Is the influence of Greek culture
would also spread far and wide, bringing with it an influence on government, literature, architecture, philosophy, and religion which would spread across the world.
polytheistic, with a focus on Mt. Olympus where the gods were supposed to have lived. There was no morality connected with their religious beliefs, but rather a focus on the rituals of sacrifice as a way to get the gods on your side, championing your cause. These gods, as seen in the classical myths, were violent, covetous, unjust, and lustful. If there was an afterlife, it was thought to be a miserable hell where the soul lived in a state of slavery to the gods.
Many Greeks, as time passed, saw these gods as mere personifications of the forces of nature which themselves were seen as __.
Some people in Athens began a movement toward the “___” religions of Egypt, with secret rituals to obtain knowledge of the mysteries of the universe, and the development of moral philosophy, where certain individuals would seek through the use of the reason to find what brings about the “good life”.
Was a classical Greek philosopher who developed the Socratic method
Questioned life and the world through human reason to discover answers. He was the student of Socrates and became an ancient Greek philosopher
Socrates and Plato
What makes a meaningful life? What is the soul? What is a moral life? What is the most just form of government? Is there a divine creator of the universe?
His descriptions of the hunger of the soul for truth, beauty, and goodness, all would leave a base for the Church in future days to demonstrate that this hunger is found in Jesus Christ and His sacraments.
Plato’s student, __, would take this pursuit of truth and reality to a whole new level, by using critical reasoning based on observed facts, showing the lengths which human reason could go to solve the questions of life.
His proofs for the existence of God still stand as one of the best explanations, based on reason, of the reality of God. His thought on virtue, government, beauty, and art would also serve to instruct future generations on this pursuit of the “good life”.
Mystery religions of Egypt
The belief that one would come to a secret understanding of the universe by participating in mysterious rituals
Mystery religions of Egypt
held over first the Greeks and later the Romans would develop into one of the earliest opponent of the Church, the heresy of Gnosticism
would teach among other things, that one would come to a secret understanding of the universe by participation in its’ mysterious rituals. The Greek philosophers would strongly influence the Church by their insights on the value of human ___ as a gift from God meant to be used in the pursuit of Truth, and this pursuit of Truth is the key to the Christian life.
Romulus and Remus
Rome had a myth which described the foundation of Rome, where ___ __ ___, abandoned twin boys, were found by locals along the Tiber River, and feeling bad for them, were nursed by a female wolf.
April 21, 753 BC
__ __ (where the Emperors would eventually establish the center of Rome with palaces, courts, temples, and markets) around the middle of the 8th century BC.
More particular to the Romans was the belief that each god or goddess watched over a particular aspect of human __. Eating, drinking, walking, traveling, working, farming, raising children, fighting.
Also particular to the Romans was the sacredness of the __. Every family had its own particular divine protector.
Connected with this were the daily rituals, prayers, and sacrifices which would be offered in the home, usually by the father, who was seen as the “___” or __ of the house, leading the family in the offerings to the gods.
The Romans had a very __ culture. Contracts, laws, authority, and hierarchy were foundations to their understanding of the world.
It was central to the Romans views that by offering a __, __, or ritual in honor of a god or goddess, they had fulfilled their part of a contract, and the divinity would have to honor their side of the contract.
Justice and Duty
There was no sense of love, devotion, or contemplation in the Roman pagan religion. It was a matter of __ __ __.
Civic duty, patriotism, and religion all blended together. The emperor himself was known as the “__ __” or “high priest”.
Soon, this worship offered by the political authorities evolved into the worship of the __ himself, along with the worship of the goddess, Rome. By worshipping the emperor, one worshipped his __.
This worship of the emperor and the city of Rome became a sign of __ and being a good __.
What is amazing is that many, if not most of the kingdoms conquered by Rome __ to live under the rule of the Roman Empire. They saw the emphasis on __, as opposed to the anarchy which existed among the barbarian tribes, as far more desirable.
(Peace of Rome) assured by the Romans also gave these conquered kingdoms a security which they did not experience on their own.
The saying, “all roads lead to Rome”, was literally true, as the Roman army would construct their stone roads from the city of Rome throughout the lands that they conquered. These roads were also known as safe from __, as the Roman army patrolled these roads and the crime of __ would be met with swift Roman justice.
Up through the third century after Christ, the common language spoken by Rome would be __. __ would replace Greek as the common language in the western part of the Roman Empire by the mid-third century AD.
A title to those who lived in the Roman Empire that showed that they were respected and honored by the emperor.
the bearer of this title certain privileges, like being able to appeal any criminal charge directly to the emperor, as well as never being crucified if one were given a death sentence, but the more “humane” form of execution, beheading.
This title told everyone that you were a favorite of the emperor, and you were treated as one who “had an in” with the powerful.
The Roman Empire provided many __ __ for its citizens. If you were a Roman citizen, it was good to live in Rome during this time.
The idea of certain people having rights under law would be embraced by the ___, extending these rights beyond just free males which the Roman Empire held, but to ___ and children as well. The importance of law as a foundation of justice is still seen today in the particular law of the Church.
This Pax Romana, or Roman peace, which the Romans sought to achieve, would be replaced by the ___ ___a peace which the world cannot give, a peace which first starts in the hearts of believers, and then extends throughout the world.
unity in diversity Church
This “__ _ ___” which the Romans hoped to achieve under a common system of laws, gods, and rituals, under the “divine emperor”, yet allowing each particular culture to practice its own customs would be taken up by the __.
The term Catholic means universal in Greek. The church is universal to all people at all times. It is not specific to a certain culture race or another type of group.
great Roman poet, author, philosopher, lawyer, and politician, Cicero. Cicero lived in the century before Christ, dying in 43 BC. There are so many things we could say about Cicero as far as his influence on western society in general, and on the Church in particular.
he would serve as a bridge between the Greek and Roman cultures, and this bridging would then be embraced by the Church and serve as an instrument in better understanding the deep mysteries of who Jesus is, what men and women are called to be, and how a culture can be transformed according to God’s plan.
was born into a noble family not too far from Rome in 106 BC. His family believed that a good education would be important for his future. At that time, this meant a thorough knowledge of both Latin and Greek.
would particularly embrace the concept of “Natural Law”, which declares that much of what can be determined to be right and wrong can be demonstrated by observing nature and the world around us. The Church would embrace this understanding as well, along with the Founding Fathers of the United States.
The law that states that says much of what can be determined to be right and wrong can be demonstrated by observing nature and the world around us.
Dec 7 43BC
His head and fingers, for these were the fingers that had written against Marc Anthony, were cut off and displayed to the public in the Roman Forum.
“father” of classical Latin, and considered one of the greatest of Latin poets. In his many letters, speeches, and other works, Cicero would pass on many ideas from the Greeks which would form a base for the movement of liberal ___ in the 18th and 19th centuries in Europe.
Concepts such as the “soul”, “virtue”, “morality”, “happiness”, and many other ideas developed by the Greeks were introduced by ___ to Roman culture, which would then form a base for the eventual growth of Christianity.
St. Augustine happiness
Many of the earliest Christian thinkers were greatly influenced by Cicero. __ ___ credits reading Cicero with his eventual conversion to Christianity, having introduced him to the ideas of Plato and the quest for ___.
St. Jerome moral
__ ____also frequently quoted Cicero in his writings, saying he could not refrain from reading Cicero every day. Cicero’s influence would continue through the Middle Ages, where his thinking would continue to help form the understanding of Natural Law, one of the main guides the Church uses for Her __ teachings.