CHPTER THREE3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.0. IntroductionThis section have been present various aspects of the methodology used in this study, Researcher approach, design, the methods of data collection, the sampling techniques, and the sources of data, data collection instrument and way of data analysis and presentation. 3.1. Research DesignTo achieve the overall and specific objectives of the study that generate from the statement of the problem the researcher identify and design the relevant method. This section includes research approach, research method, sampling techniques, sample size, data type and sources of data such as primary and secondary, data analyses and interpretation, data presentation and conclusion.
3.2. Research ApproachThere are many research tools and methods used to collect data from the field. Due to the objectives and nature of the issue under investigation, particularly its emphasis on investigating the causes and effects of in-migration; the study was used both qualitative and quantitative research approaches. 3.3. Research Method This research paper was employed descriptive research type. The descriptive research type has been used describe socio-demographic characteristics, causes and livelihood vulnerability of migration.
Used to examine, understand and interpret the existing situation of migrant street vending. In addition, it was used to describe qualitative aspects of the participants’ interest, attitude and perception toward the existence causes and effect of in-migration. 3.4. Time Dimension of ResearchThis paper was used cross-sectional research design, because, the researcher is going to study once at a period of time. 3.5. Sampling Design In order to select the appropriate representatives of the population and to make the research findings more relevant and accurate, the sample design need to be well structure.
Therefore, the researcher designs the sample as follows: 3.5.1. Population The populations for the study were all in-migrant persons who drive from urban and rural residences to Dessie city are considered as my population. 3.5.2. Target populationThe target population for the study was all persons who drive from urban and rural residences to Dessie city and get their source of revenue by street vending. 3.5.3. Sampling unit/unit of Analysis The main units that were used for, describing and gathering information is sample individual/migrants, city administer, micro and small enterprise staffs and social and labor affair staffs.3.5.4. Sample Size and Sampling Techniques Studying the total population of street vending in Dessie city on the whole is basically difficult, a suitable size of specific area of the study is obligatory in order to successfully finish the paper within a given time and resource. Having this in mind, the streets found in Dessie city are purposively selected Pizza and Sherf-tera streets are business areas of the street vending residence. This particular location choice depend on the reality that the street vending are highly accumulation in those sites near by commercial, business area and open markets.It is impossible to seek an exact number of street vending migrants from rural and urban area to Dessie city in general and in Pizza and Sherf-tera Streets in particular to apply purposive selection. As a matter of reality, purposive sampling technique has been employed to select the study participant depend on some of the characteristics like age and geographical origin.The researcher purposively selected 123 street vending continued their livelihood as street vending for more than six months and who migrated from different urban and rural areas to Dessie in general and the study area in spicily by using snow ball sampling technique. Snow ball sampling is a technique to seeking the help of the study participants in locating and selecting respondents. And also from regulators (Mayor of Dessie City, Micro and small enterprise office exports and social and labor affair office experts) were selected, based on their role and responsibility they have. Therefore, the total sample size was 128. In order to make clear the researcher shows the total sample size on the given table below.Table: 1. Sample Size Data collection tools Sample population Sampling techniques Proportion of sample size Total sample sizeQuestionnaire, Focus group discussion and observation Migrant street vendors Purposive sampling and snow ball sampling 123 123Interview Regulators City mayor Purposive sampling 1 5 social and labor affair office and other experts Purposive sampling 2 Micro and small enterprise office exports Purposive sampling 2 Total 1283.6. Source of Data and Data Collection technique 3.6.1. Sources of DataFor the successful completion of the study both primary and secondary sources of data have been employed. 126.96.36.199. Primary Data Source The prime data for this study have been generated from the select study areas of migrant street vendors through data collection instruments such as questioner, key informant interview, Focus Group Discussion (FGD) and observation in order to get reliable and valid dat. 188.8.131.52. Secondary Data SourcesSecondary data used from different sources by accessed data and reviewed different literatures. The secondary sources are used in the study to collected data through document review and these can be researches done by other scholars (journal, article), books, websites, newspapers and magazines, laws, rulings and policy documents were refer which help the researcher to get relevant data and information. 3.7. Data Collection Instrument As far as the nature of the data is concern both qualitative and quantitative data were collected. So as to generate the qualitative and quantitative data the researcher is going to employed both primary and secondary data sources. For this study questionnaire, interviews, focus group discussion and direct observation using check list was utilized from primary data observation in order to get reliable and valid data:3.7.1. QuestionnaireOpen-ended and close-ended questions were included in the questionnaire. The questionnaire was prepare in order to gather relevant primary data from the migrants which is concerned the street vending in Dessie city and the questionnaire was prepared originally in English, and then will translate to Amharic.3.7.2. InterviewInterview is a face to face or tow way conversation that helps to obtain, detail information and gather supplemental information by probing with additional questions. Based on the likely data availability, the researchers took government officials and experts who have a deeper and better knowledge about the migrant street vendors. Accordingly the officials were: from city administrate offices head, tow experts working in micro and small enterprise offices, tow experts working in Labor and Social Affairs offices were the source of interview.3.7.3. Focus Group Discussions Focus Group Discussions were conducted with migrant street vending people in group containing of 8 people who are purposively selected. During the conversation the researcher was used an interview guide to direct a discussion among the focus group participants in order to seeking out their practices, opinions and views in a given ideas or issues. The purpose was to encourage active participation of people during the conversation. The researcher was used photo and note during the time of discussion. 3.7.4. Observation The other primary data collection method was conducted through researchers personal observation during data collection at the same time non participatory observation was used in the study area. Techniques are chosen to allow the researcher to see problem on the ground and enabling to raise more questions related to the objective of the study.3.8. Methods of Data Analysis and Interpretation3.8.1. Data AnalysisAfter editing, coding and tabulation process, data analysis are began. Both qualitative and quantitative analysis techniques were applied. For data gather using interviews, FGD, and field observation, qualitative approach was used to analyzed and evaluate attitudes and experiences of concerned bodies regarding the issues under study. Whereas data generated from individual through questionnaires were analyzed using quantitative techniques. 3.8.2. Data InterpretationTo present the results of the data analysis through sample survey; tables, pie chart, bar chart, figure and graphs were used. Data that are obtained through interview, FGD and observation are analyzed qualitatively using interpretation and present in text form. 3.9. Ethical ConsiderationsDuring the way of doing this paper, ethical consideration is one of the main significant issues that earn focus. This is mostly due to: The need to strictly respect the agreement of the participant whether they are ready to involve in the research or not. Too, it is to promise to the subjects of the study that they are unrestricted to withdraw from participating in the study every time they found it important. The need to keep subjects of the study from risks may be face. Confidentiality, the real name of informants in the study are protect secret while the age or sex of participant may be used where it looks suitable. Thus, the researcher was guaranteed the migrants that the research is strictly directed by the above ethical values and they have also agreed. 3.10. Operationalization FrameworkOperationalization is the process whereby the researcher specifies empirical observations that take as indicators of the attributes contained in the given concept. In order to properly measure or answer the research objectives we need to identify the concepts included in each research objectives, define their meaning in the study and operationalize them into measurable indicators or variables is crucial.