Anomalies of Anthropogenic Climate Change And their Impact to HumanitySubmitted in partial fulfillment of The requirements for Chemistry for Engineers (CHM031)Francis Jacob D. Aquino17-March-2019 (1st Draft)Anthropogenic climate changes allude to Greenhouse gas production in which it is the result by human activity. By examining and investigating the polar ice caps, scientists are somewhat convinced that any kind of human activity could be the result of the proportion increase of GHG in the ozone layer which it had been accumulated in the globe over the past few million years.
According to the Fourth Report of the IPCC which released in 2007, they stated that there were numerous lines of evidences which validates that the post-industrial rise for GHG doesn’t stem from any natural mechanism. To revise, this anthropogenic climate change, and some other significant increase in the ozone layer or atmosphere of these potent GHG are really the result of human activity. (IPCC, 2007)The causes of this ACC (Anthropogenic Climate Change) is generally is the result of human activity in terms to nature.
There are factors that can shape climate and these are called climate forces or actually known as forcing mechanisms (Smith, Ralph C., 2013). These include the processes and variations in terms of solar radiation, Earth orbit and albedo variations or continent reflectivity. These forcing mechanisms could either be internal or external. Internal mechanisms are defined to be natural process within the climate itself whilst external forcing mechanisms can be either anthropogenic (Ex: Numerous amounts of GHG and dust) or natural. (Ex: Changes in solar output and volcanic eruptions). Effects among HumansSocialThe social effects of anthropogenic climate change have numerous kinds of effects among humans. The impact of is that it can be brought upon thought in which it comes with in terms of sensitivity and vulnerability. Sensitivity is the degree which a system is to be affected, whether be positive or negative, by any climate change or variability while Vulnerability defines to a point where a specific system might be adversely be affected by the change of climate. (IPCC, 2007). EcologicalThere are some effects on which that ACC (Anthropogenic Climate Change) have been observed to have impacts on ecological and biological systems. According to Rosenzweig et al. (2007), she concluded that the recent climate change had a strong effect upon natural & biological systems. Studies also supported and have documented the reactions of the ecological systems, plants & animals towards these climate changes which have already occurred through the past years. (Committee on Ecological Impacts of Climate Change, US National Research Council (NRC), 2008). It has been also considered that climate change is a major factor for biodiversity loss in conifer forests, savannahs, and tropical forests and also in coral reefs. (Fischlin et al., 2007)EconomicalEconomical effects have shown that anthropogenic climate change impacts can be measured as an economic cost. (Smith et al., 2001:936-941). This is likely suited best for market impacts, such impacts that are linked to transactions in the market and that could directly affect the GDP. There are also non-market impacts as stated by Smith et al. (2001) where he predicted where the climate change would result into pronounced non-market impacts and most of those impacts were considered to be negative. He also noted few studies which had been reviewed that have adequate accounts. Confalonieri et al. (2007) also discovered studies that had included health impacts which have substantial contribution to the total costs of anthropogenic climate change.Greenhouse GasesGreenhouse gases are the gases that absorbs and emit radiant energies within a thermal infrared range. They cause the well ” known term called greenhouse effect. (IPCC AR4 SYR Appendix Glossary, 2008). The atmospheric concentrations which were determined by the balance the sources (gas emission from the results of human actions and other natural systems) and how it sinks (Gas removal from atmosphere by different compound conversion or water absorption). (Solomon, S.; Qin, D.; Manning, M.; Chen, Z.; Marquis, M.; Averyt, K.B.; Tignor, M.; Miller, H.L., eds., 2007)The greenhouse gases serve a huge contribution to the greenhouse effect as they radiate energies in all directions. This process of radiation is directed towards the earth’s surface, therefore, warming the planet. (Vaclav Smil, 2003). Also, these certain gases in the atmosphere don’t allow heat to escape. Other gases which remained semi-permanent in the atmosphere do not respond physically or chemically to changes such as temperature.Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse effect is strengthened through such human activities or which is called as Anthropogenic Greenhouse Effect.( Nova. Australian Academy of Scihuman impact on the environment. 2006.) This has an increase in radiative forcing from human activity which is highly and mainly attributed to the increased atmospheric levels of CO2. Such processes to be considered physical when humans burn fossil fuels such as coal, oil, etc. This increase the amount of concentrations the greenhouse gases can accumulate which contributes to global warming.According to NASA, the GH effect only occurs when the sun radiates Earth with numerous amounts of solar radiation, which in turn lands the Earth’s atmosphere in the form of light also with Ultraviolet & Infrared and such other types of radiation. 30% is somewhat to be estimated of radiation going down to Earth and bouncing back out to space. The remaining 70% is absorbed by Earth’s water bodies, landforms & its atmosphere.Given the fact that any body in space emits radiation, the wavelength of that radiation is related inversely of that body’s temperature. The sun’s radiation striking the earth has shorter wavelengths where the outbound radiation energy coming from the planet is in the IR longwave bands.(IPCC-I, 1990; Rsenberg, 1998). Also, water vapor and the GH gases which are known to be CO2, CFC, methane, Nitrous Oxide and ozone, are somewhat transparent to shortwave radiation but they’re classified to be opaque when reacted with longwaves. This result to permission of the sun’s radiation to allow penetration to the planet’s suface but only a portion is to trapped alongside the Earth’s outbound radiation.(Cline, w. 1991)Montreal ProtocolREFERENCESWeb Sources:Anthropogenic Climate Change. (n.d.). Retrieved from 4th Report. (n.d.). Retrieved from 1: Assessment of Observed Changes and Responses in Natural and Managed Systems. (n.d.). Retrieved from (2019). Greenhouse Effect. [online]Retrieved from: Warming. (n.d.). Retrieved from R. C. (2014). Uncertainty quantification: Theory, implementation, and applications. Philadelphia, PA: SIAM.Journals/PDF:Committee on Ecological Impacts of Climate Change, US National Research Council (NRC) (2008). Ecological Impacts of Climate Change. 500 Fifth Street, NW Washington, DC 20001: The National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-12710-3.Rosenzweig; et al., “Chapter 1: Assessment of Observed Changes and Responses in Natural and Managed Systems”, Sec. 18.104.22.168 Crops and livestock in IPCC AR4 WG2 2007.Cline, W. (1991). Scientific Basis for the Greenhouse Effect. The Economic Journal, 101(407), 904-919. doi:10.2307/2233863Confalonieri, U.; et al. (2007). “Human health. In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [M.L. Parry et al., Eds.]”. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, and New York, N.Y., U.S.A. Retrieved 2009-05-20.”IPCC AR4 SYR Appendix Glossary” (PDF). Retrieved 14 December2008.
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