Children Obesity Essay
The problem of childhood obesity in the United States has grown considerably in recent years. Between 16 and 33 percent of children and adolescents are obese.From Environmental Health Perspectives website, the recent data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey estimate 17% of youths ages 2-19 years old to be overweight compare to just 5% a few decades ago(“Child obesity”). This data shows we should act urgently to rescue children because the percentage of child obesity is increasing rapidly.According to Answer.com website, using the BMI (Body Mass Index) calculation, overweight is between 25-30, obese is 30-40 and extremely obese is 40 and up. This calculation is a height and weight comparison (BMI = weight in pounds X 705 / height in inches squared). By usingbody fat analysis, for a woman’s obesity starts about 33% body fat, for a man, it is about 24%(“How do you know”).Weight and shape of children are affected by hereditary factors from their parents.
However, most of unhealthy weight gain is due to poor diet. Children who have obesity have bad habits; for example, they prefer to eat fast food such as hamburgers with french fries and coke than healthy food such as vegetable and multi-grains. Fast food is very tempting to children and theirparents because of its cheap price, taste, and convenience. The reason children like hamburgers is high levels of salt and sugar content found in most fast food items. So far, unhealthy food leads children to become obese which causes various health problems. Overweight children, when compared to healthy weight children, are more likely to develop many health problems such as depression, diabetes, high cholesterol and high blood pressure, which are associated with heart disease in adults. Thepurpose of this paper is to reviewhow children obesity effects on physical and mental health.
First, children obesity and overweight have been found to be at an increased risk of depression. Obese children get stress from change of their body shape, perspectives from other people’s awareness that leads to poor self-esteem or social phobia which are related to the cause of depression. [출처][비만우울증] 비만과우울증, 비만과우울증의관계 – 잠실스포츠종합상가스폼|작성자spom4237236The following article, “Childhood Obesity and Depression: Connection Between These Growing Problems in Growing Children,” shows how depression is diagnosed in youths. Youthbecome depress if they gain weight more than they expected. Also, obesity and overweight are connected to sleep problem which is associated with increased risk of depression. In study of 400 adolescents with a primary diagnosis of major depressive disorder, change in sleep was most common symptom remaining depression in youths. Relationship between sleep and obesity is intervened at least in part by insulin resistance.
In a study of obese children, insulin was connected with shorter sleep duration according to thepolysomnography (Reeves M. G., Postolache T. T., Snitker S.).In addition, that child obesity cause depression is obesity makes children a target for bullying. According to Medscape Medical News, “Obese children are more likely to be bullied than their non-obese peers regardless of sex, race, socioeconomic status, social skills, or academic achievement” (Harrison).Because childhood and adolescent are a sensitive period, and they focus on other’s appearance, obese children can be targeted of bullying that makes them get hurt and depress. To prevent the depression, children need to eat health food and exercise. In addition to obesity causes depression, the second health problem is obesity causes diabetes.
The dietary habits of obese children are eating a lot of sugar and salt which are excessive caloric intake. Being obese means you have more fatty tissue, having more fatty tissue causes the body to become insulin resistant and becoming insulin resistant causes the body to put on more weight. Becoming more insulin resistant and at a certain level of resistance, it becomes known as diabetes. Obese children also are twice as likely to have diabetes than children who are of normal weight, according to a new study from the University of Michigan Health System. The study, published in the February issue of Diabetes Care, is the most recent national study to estimate the prevalence of children with diabetes. It found that more than 229,000 children, approximately 3.2 cases for every 1,000 American children under the age of 18, currently have diabetes.
And one-third of those children are obese(“Obese Children Twice”). Obesity causes the build-up of fats around cell walls. The liver loses the ability for the metabolism of glucose. Glucose is supplied with the help of the insulin hormone. In essence, obesity reduces the body’s ability to use insulin properly. A glucose build up is deposited in the urine.In addition, diabetes is explained from Washington University in St. Louis website. Diabetes mellitus is a group of disorders that have in common high blood sugar and the risk of damage to tissues and organs. There are two major types: Type1, juvenile diabetes and Type 2, adult-onset diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes, the cells of the pancreas that make insulin are destroyed. Often, the body’s immune system destroys these cells, sort of like friendly fire. Without insulin, blood sugar rises and complications occur.
Lifelong insulin treatment is required. In Type 2 diabetes, organs and tissues are resistant to insulin; that is, more insulin is needed to have the same effect. When the insulin-making cells can no longer keep up with the extra insulin needed, blood sugar becomes high and diabetes occurs (“Obesity, Type 2 diabetes”). Overall, children should avoid eatingso muchunhealthy food that contain of high sugar, salt and fat that causes diabetesto continue into adulthood. In addition to obesity causes diabetes, the third health problem is obese puts children at risk for high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure that cause heart disease. Children’s diets have changed dramaticallybecause it is influenced by television commercials and the convenience of fast foods that have too much sugar and salt that leads high cholesterol level.
In “Cholesterol in Childhood” by Vincent Iannelli, M.D., the author reported “The effects of cardiovascular disease is something that will especially be a problem once an overweight child grows up, when he will be at risk for a heart attack or stroke.”Also, the article exposes children who have heart disease with high cholesterol was 2.3 times as likely to have died early. These factsgive a warning to how obesity is related to serious health problem to children. The connection between high cholesterol and high blood pressure was explained on Livestrong.com website, “Cholesterol is a soft waxy material in the blood that mixes with lipids. It shapes membranes and some hormones but does not dissolve in the blood. Since it does not dissolve, lipoproteins carry it to and from cells. Blood pressure is the force that pushes blood through blood vessels, then to all body organs.
When these two functions of the body are not working correctly, it can be devastating to overall health.”(“Connections Between”).According to Webmd.com website, when there is too much cholesterol in blood, it builds up in the walls of arteries, causing a process called atherosclerosis, a form of heart disease. The arteries become narrowed and blood flow to the heart muscle is slowed down or blocked. The blood carries oxygen to the heart, and if enough blood and oxygen cannot reach the heart, it may cause chest pain (“Heart disease”).Because ofhigh cholesterol, high blood pressure that are related to the heart disease, obese children need dietary changes and weight loss to help lower their cholesterol.
In conclusion, children obesity is an increasingly prevalent health disorder and is of particularly concern because children who are obese are more likely to continue to become obese through adolescence and into adulthood with various health problems. Eating unhealthy food and lack of exercise lead to most of child obesity and overweight. Obesity can cause mental and physical problemsinchildren. According to “Child obesity ‘time bomb’ a threat to life expectancy”, Food Standards Agency chairman, John Krebs, told: “We already know that many children’s diets contain more fat, sugar and salt than is recommended.
We know that the level of obesity in children is rising and, in the words of the chief medical officer, is a health time bomb that could explode.” (Carey). Also, children obesity can be targeted of bullying and give rise to diabetes, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and heart diseases. Also, child obesity has high probability to become an obese adult. Therefore, we need to accept the children obesity as a serious problem in current society in the United States and seek the solutionsto make children free from obesity and being overweight.
Brown, Joni.“Connections Between High Blood Pressure & Cholesterol”. livestrong.com, 17 Dec. 2010 Web. 22 May 2012
Carey, Dorothy. “Child Obesity ‘Time Bomb’ A Threat To Life Expectancy.” Nutridate 15.1 (2004): 8. Web. 22 May 2012.
Harrison, Pam. “Obesity Makes Children a Target for Bullying.” Medscape Medical News. 4
May 2010. Web. 22May 2012.
“Heart Disease and Lowering cholesterol”.Webmd.com,Web. 22 May 2012 Iannelli,Vincent. “Cholesterol in Childhood”.About.com, 13November 2011 Web. 22 May 2012
“Obese Children Twice as likely to have Diabetes”. University of Michigan, 2 Feb. 2006.
Web. 22 May 2012
“Obesity, Type 2 Diabetes Growing rapidly among Children”. Washington University in St. Louis., 11 March 2005. Web. 22 May 2012
Reeves, Gloria M., Teodor T.Postolache., and Soren Snitker. “Childhood Obesity and Depression: Connection between these Growing Problems in Growing Children.” NIH Public Access. Aug. 2008. Web. 22 May 2012
University/College: University of Arkansas System
Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter
Date: 15 February 2017
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