WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNED?
1. The study of human development is a science because it depends on theories, data, analysis, critical thinking, and sound methodology just like every other science. 2. The five steps of the scientific method are:
1) begin with curiosity
2) develop a hypothesis
3) test the hypothesis
4) draw conclusions
5) report the results.
3. The research on SIDS illustrates the replication and application of the science of child development by repeating the study and using different participants from other cultures. 4. Known:
– birth order did not matter
– other factors can increase the risk
-sleeping position mattered
-back sleeping reduced SIDS
– if its genetics.
– why it still occurs
5. Nature refers to the influence of the genes that people inherit. Nurture refers to environmental influences, beginning with the health and diet of the embryo’s mother and continuing lifelong, including family, school, culture, and society.
7. Exaggeration of human sex differences is distortions that develop
mentalists seek to avoid. People tend to notice differences and jump to conclusion that something important is lacking. 8.
10. People from several groups can share a culture because it is a system of shared beliefs, conventions, norms, behaviors, expectations and symbolic representations that persist over time; it is a powerful social construction. 11. The term race has been used to categorize people on the basis of physical differences, particularly outward appearance. The term ethnic groups are people whose ancestors were born in the same region and who often share a language, culture, and religion. 12. SES reflects family income, but not income alone. The education and occupation of the head of the household, or of both parents, and sometimes the average education or income of the other residents of the neighborhood, also used to determine SES.
Improved Motor Skills
15. The implied view of human development is an ongoing, ever changing interaction between the physical, cognitive, and psychosocial influence. The crucial understanding is that development is never static but is always affected by, and affects, many systems of development.
Injuries and Abuse
16. It is more accurate to consider the system of development rather than each part in isolation because just like the way the natural world changes over time, the human growth follows diverse patterns and paces.
17. Bronfenbrenner emphasize in his ecological systems approach that develop mentalists must consider all the systems that surround each person, just as a naturalist examines the ecology of each organism, considering the interrelationships between it and its environment. 18. All persons born within a few years of one another are said to be the same cohort. Members of each cohort are affected by the values, events, technologies, and culture of their era.
19. The biosocial development includes all the growth and change that occur in a person’s body and the genetic, nutritional, and health factors that affect that growth and change. The cognitive development includes all the mental processes that a person uses to obtain knowledge or to think about the environment. The psychosocial development includes development of emotions, temperament, and social skills.
20. Scientific observation requires researchers to record behavior systematically and objectively, using behavioral definitions and timed data. The experiment is the research method that scientists use to establish cause.
21. Experimenters use a control group as well as an experimental group to find out whether an independent variable affects the dependent variable.
22. Using independent and dependent variables make it easier to learn what causes what because the researcher can conclude how the independent variable caused whatever changes occurred in the dependent variable. 23.