Development of Children and Youth

Categories: Child development

Understand child and young person development Understand the expected pattern of development for children and young people from birth to 19 years It is important to remember that development is holistic, and each child is unique and will develop in their own way. Many skills and areas of development overlap with one another. A child does not learn the skills needed to play football, for example, which may be considered as a physical skill, without having social, communication and cognitive skills as well.

Aspects of development include physical, communication and language, intellectual/cognitive, social, emotional and behavioural and moral. Physical development This is an important area of children`s development and one often assumed will take place automatically as they grow and mature. Although children will develop many skills naturally as they get older. * 0-3 years. This is a period of fast physical development. When they are first born, babies have little control over their bodies. There movement are dependent on series of reflexes (for example, sucking and grasping) which they need to survive.

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In their first year they gradually learn to control over their bodies so that by 12 months, most babies will have a degree of mobility such as crawling or rolling. In the second year babies will continue to develop quickly and it is at this stage most children will start to walk. Their ability to control their movements will mean they will start to use their hands for pointing, holding small objects and will start to dress and feed themselves.

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They will be able to play with a ball and will enjoy climbing. In their third year, children will start to have more control over pencils and crayons and will enjoy turning pages in books.

They should be able to use cups and feed themselves. They will start to walk and run with more confidence, and will be exploring toys such as tricycles. * 3-7 years. At this stage children will be able to carry out more co-ordinated movements and will be growing in confidence as a result. They will be refining the skills developed so far and will he more control over fine motor skills such as cutting, writing and drawing. They will be become more confident in running, hopping, kicking a ball and using larger equipment. * 7-12 years. Children will continue to grow and develop many of their skills.

They may start to have hobbies and interests which mean that they are more practised in some areas, for example, sport or dance. Girls in particular will start to show some of the early signs of puberty from the age 10 or 11. In boys, puberty usually starts later, when there will be another period of rapid physical growth. * 12-16 years. At this stage of development, young people will be growing stronger. Boys will be starting to go through puberty and many girls have completed this process and have regular periods. Girls will experience breast enlargement and increase fat layers.

Boys will experience enlargement of their testes and penis and muscle strength. Their voice will become deeper. Boys and girls may experience a growth spurt at this time also. * 16-19 years. This is the stage which young people become adults and often at their peak of their physical performance. Although many girls may have reached physical maturity, boys will continue to grow and change until their mid-20s. Communication and language development * 0-3 years. From the earliest stages adults will usually try to communicate with babies even though they are not yet able to understand what is being said.

This is because it is important for babies to be stimulated and have an interest shown in them. Babies will be listening to language from those around them and will enjoy songs and games. Most will try to speak around 12 months although pronunciation will not be clear and words will usually be used in isolation. Between 1 and 2 years they will start to put words together and their vocabulary will start to increase fairly rapidly so that by 2 years, most children will know 200 words. Between 2-3 years children will be starting to use negatives and plurals in their speech. * 3-7 years.

As children become more social and wider experiences they will start to use familiar phrases and expressions. They will also ask a large number of questions. * 7-12 years. By this stage most children will be fluent speakers of a language, and will be developing and refining their skills at reading and writing. Intellectual and cognitive development Children`s intellectual development will depend to a wide extent on their own experiences and the opportunities they are given from the earliest stages. It is also important that children will learn in a variety of ways. * 0-3 years.

Babies will start to look at the world around them and will enjoy repetitive activities in which they can predict the outcome. For example, when something is hidden from they are able to find it. They may start to recognise colours. * 3-7 years. This is the period of development in which the children are becoming more skilled at the aspects of numbers and writing, as well as continuing to learn about their world. They will also start looking for adult approval and will start to learn to read. * 7-11 years. Children will start to develop activities or subjects which they enjoy.

They will still be influenced by adults and will become fluent in reading and writing skills. They will develop their own thoughts preferences. * 12-16 years. Young people will usually now have a clear idea about their favourite subjects and ideas. They will be reflecting on their achievements and choosing their learning pathway. They also lack in confidence or avoid situations in which they have to do less popular subjects, to the extent they may truant. * 16-19 years. by the time they come to leave school, they will be thinking about a career and college choices based on the pathway and subjects they have selected.

Social, emotional, behavioural and moral development * 0-3 years. Very young children will be starting to find out their own identities. They will need to form a strong attachment, the earliest of which will be the parents and carers. At this stage of development children may start to have tantrums through frustration and will want to start doing things for themselves. * 3-7 years. Children will still be developing their identities and will be starting to play with peers and social using imaginative play. This helps them to develop their concept of different roles in their lives.

It is also important they are able to learn boundaries and why they are necessary. They will also be given a responsibility, for example, a class helper. * 7-12 years. Children`s friendships now will become more settled and they will have groups of friends. They will also require more independence to carry out activities such as problem solving. They will continue to need praise and encouragement and will be increasingly aware of what others may think of them. * 12-16 years. At this stage the self-esteem of children and young people can be very vulnerable.

They still want to be independent of adults and spend more time with friends their own age, but continue to display childish behaviour. It maybe they are unsure how to behave in different situations. * 16-19 years. As young people enter adulthood they may still need advice and guidance from other adults. They will lack experience and individuals will vary in emotional maturity and the way which they interact with others. Personal factors Pupils` health If pupils suffer from poor health or a physical disability or impairment, this may restrict their development opportunities.

For example, a pupil who has a medical condition or impairment may be less able to participate in some activities than other children. This will effect physical development but may also restrict social activities, for example, participating in sports. The child`s emotional development may also be affected depending on their needs and the extent they are affected. It is important that as I as an adult I`m aware of how pupils may be affected by these conditions and circumstances, so I can support them by ensuring them that they are included as far as possible.

External factors Poverty and deprivation are likely to have a significant effect on pupil development. Statistics show that children who come from deprived backgrounds are likely to thrive and achieve well in school, as parents will find it more difficult to manage their children`s needs, which will in turn impact on all areas of development. These will all affect the way in which pupils are able to respond in different situations. Pupils will come from a range of different family environments, cultures and circumstances. Many families go through significant changes during the child`s school years.

These may include a family break-up or a new partner, bereavement, illness, moving house or changing country. The personal choices of pupils will affect their development as they grow older, as they decide on friendship groups, extra-curricular activities, academic involvement and so on. They may need advice and support from adults to enable them to make the right choices. If a child is looked after or in care, this may affect their development in different ways. However, they will be usually monitored closely and there will be regular meetings with the school to ensure that they are making expected levels of progress.

Where there are any issues, these will then be addressed straight away. In some cases children may come to school without any previous education- for example, if they are from another country where formal education may begin later. Alternatively they may come from a home schooling environment or a different method of schooling, so they may need to have some additional support until they become settled. Theories of development include Cognitive Piaget believed that the way children think and learn is governed by their age and stage of development, because learning is based on experiences which they build up as they become older.

As children`s experiences change they adapt what they believe. For example, a child who sees only green apples will believe all apples are green. Children need to extend their experiences in order to extend their learning, and will eventually take ownership of this themselves so that they can think about experiences that they have not yet developed. Psychoanalytic Freud stated that our personalities are made up from three parts- the id, the ego and the superego. Each of these will develop with the child and each will develop in a subconscious way driven by psychological needs. The id is the instinctive part of our personality; in other words, it is based on biological needs such as hunger. A baby will cry if it is hungry and will not consider the needs of others around it. * The ego starts to develop as the child realises thats its behaviour may affect how its needs are met. For example, if it is hungry, it may not decide to cry for food but to wait, as food will come anyway. * The superego develops later on in childhood and it is based on the development of the conscience, the superego may develop conflicting views to that of the ego, and may punish the individual through guilt.

Alternatively if the ego behaves well the superego will promote pride. Humanist Maslow was originally interested in behaviourism and studied the work of Watson. He also acknowledged Freud`s belief in the presence of the unconscious-however he did not think that individuals were driven by it. He felt that knowledge of ourselves were driven by it. Humanistic psychology is based on our free will, although we have a hierarchy of needs without which we will be unable to continue to progress. Social learning Bandura`s approach was also one of behaviourism, in other words, it was accepted the principles of conditioning.

However Bandura stated that learning takes place through observing others rather than being taught or reinforced. Children sometimes copy the behaviour or activities of adults or peers without being told to do so, meaning learning is spontaneous. Operant conditioning Operant conditioning theory states that our learning is based on consequence which follows a particular behaviour. In other words we will repeat those experiences which are enjoyable and avoid those that are not. This is relevant for for learning experiences as it is for behaviour.

For example, a child who is praised well at a particular task again. B. F. Skinner called this positive reinforcement. This work closely linked to that of John Watson, discussed below, although it differs from Watson`s in that individuals are more active in the process of learning and will make their own decisions based on the consequences of their own behaviour. Behaviourist Watson believed that we was all born with the same abilities and that anyone can be taught anything-it dies not depend on innate ability but on watching others.

His idea `classical conditioning` and was born out of Ivan Pavlov`s research using dogs. Pavlov devised an experiment by ringing a bell when dogs were about to be fed, which made them salivate, as associated it with food appearing. The bell was then rung repeatedly with no food and gradually the dogs stopped salivating. Watson discounted emotions and feelings while learning and based on his theories purely on how individuals can be `trained` to behave in a particular way. Social pedagogy Social pedagogy is a humanistic framework to support development.

It refers to holistic approach to the needs of the child through health, school, family and spiritual life, leisure activities and the community. Through social pedagogy the child is central through their involvement and interaction with the wider wide. The framework is socially constructed and may vary between cultures, contexts and the time it takes place. Methods of assessing development needs: * Assessment frameworks * Observations * Standard measurements * Information from carers and colleagues It is important to understand the purpose of observations as part of my role.

This is because I will need to report back to the teacher, who will in turn report to parents and carers on the pupil progress. Parents and teachers should share information about pupils to enable them to work together in the pupil`s interest. These observations may be carried out formally and informally, these have advantages and disadvantages. Informal observations will be those which I carry out each day as work with pupils. These may be small but over time it will enable me to build a picture of each pupil.

I may notice, for example, that individual is able to understand a new concepts very easily. A disadvantage to informal observations is that it may not be recorded and you might forgot. I may also be asked to carry out formal observations on pupils to support the teacher in assessing pupils` Standard measurements are used to measure a child`s physical development and to determine whether they are growing at the expected rate for their age. It is unlikely that I will be required to carry out this kind of check, as it will be done by health visitors.

The Assessment Framework of Assessment Triangle is the term given to the way in which a child is assessed, to determine whether they are in need and what the nature of those needs is. In his way the child`s best interests can be planned for with regard to their stage of development. Standard measurements and assessment frameworks will be useful in deciding on whether the child is reaching expected milestones of development in different areas. I should not to be required to use these without the guidance and support form teacher or SENCO.

Disability may affect development in a number of ways. Depending on the pupil`s needs, it may cause a delay in a particular aspect of their development – for example, a physical disability may affect their social skills if they become more withdrawn, or their behaviour if they become frustrated. Development may also be affected by the attitudes and expectations of others – if we assume that a disabled person will not be able to achieve and do not allow to take part, we restricting their development in all areas.

When I am working with pupils who have special educational needs (SEN), you will find that many professionals and parents speak about the danger of `labelling` pupils. This is because it is important that we look at the needs of the individual first, without focusing on the pupil`s disabilities or impairment. How different types of intervention can promote positive outcomes As a teaching assistant I am involved in intervention groups and other group work on order to support pupils who are not progressing at the same rate as others.

This is advised by either the SENCO or another professional who links with the school. * Social worker – a social worker might be involved if a child has been a cause of concern in the home environment or if the parents have asked for support. They will liaise with school regarding Looked After Children (LACs). Occasionally schools may contact social services directly if they have concerns about a child and their home environment. * Speech and language therapist – they will give a diagnosis of a particular ommunication delay or disorder and will also advise school and parents about ways in which they can support the child. Speech and language appointments will usually be delivered in blocks, followed by activities for pupils to work on before their next review. * Educational psychologist – they may become involved if, following intervention and action from speech and language therapists and teaching staff, the child is still not making progress. They will carry out an assessment and suggest next steps * Psychiatrist – may be asked to assess a child if there is serious concerns about their emotional development.

Children will usually have been referred through a series of assessments before this takes place. * Youth justice – this form of intervention is a public body which aims to stop children and young people offending. The youth justice team may be involved in a partnership with schools and the community where there are cases of offending behaviour. It also acts in a preventative way by running youth inclusion programmes, which are targeted towards those who may be at high risk of offending. Physiotherapist – will advise and give targets to pupilsto work on around the development of their gross motor skills. They give exercises for school staff and parents to work on each depending on the needs of the child. * Nurse/health visitor – these medical professionals may be involved in supporting the development of some children where they have physical and health needs. They will usually come into school to advise and speak to staff generally with parents present. * Assistive technologies – these are technologies which enable pupils who have specific needs to access the curriculum.

They range from computer programmes to specific items such as a speech recognition device or a hearing aid and will give the individual an increased level of independence. How play/activities are used to support speech, language and communication We need to encourage children and young people to develop language and communication skills as much as possible, as this is a key area of their development. Adults will need to give children and young people opportunities to take part in speaking ang listening for different purposes and in different situations.

It is important that pupils use language both in whole class and small group activities and I encourage them to talk about their own ideas. In early years play experiences can enhance all areas of development and can be directly specifically to address individual areas such as speaking and listening or can be used more generally to support all. Through play children will learn both about themselves and about others, and will use their speech, language and communication skills in order to interact in a non-pressured environment.

As children grow older their play takes on rules which require skills of negotiation. Children and young people still need to receive the chance to enjoy self-directed activities and equipment which support their creative and investigative skills. It is important that they have opportunities to use their own initiative and at times work collaboratively. Project work particularly when problem solving, can support children and young children to develop their personal, learning and thinking skills. A great deal of our communication with others is expressed non-verbally.

It is important for children and young people who are autistic for example may well have difficulty in recognising and interpreting non-verbal signs, when working with a pupil who has communication and interaction needs, you will to be using different non-verbal strategies to support them. Through using this foem of communication you will be giving pupils additional aid to understand. The kind of strategies to use include: * Using gestures – this could be something as simple as thumbs up or beckoning the pupil to come over. Pointing to objects – you can help pupils to understand by giving concrete examples of what you are discussing and encouraging pupils tp point to different objects in a similar way * Through facial expressions – a smile or a nod can show approval while you also indicate excitement, disapproval, happiness and other emotions * Through the use of body language – you show that you are giving the pupil attention through the way the way in which you sit or stand A number of visual and auditory approaches can also be used to enhance communication * Pictures can be used to initiate or supplement conversation as they are a good starting point. The pupils can also use pictures to illustrate their ideas. * Games are often used successfully to initiate pupil`s speech and involve them in social interaction * Signs support pupils who are unable to communicate verbally. However, they should not be used exclusively by these pupils; other children will enjoy learning different signs as well as teaching them to one another * Technology such as CDs, computer programs and interactive white boards are useful means of stimulating pupil`s communication skills * Modelling language is important as it gives hildren the chance to hear the correct use of language * Music and singing are excellent ways of reinforcing language for all age groups * Drama and movement activities can provide alternative ways to communicate ideas Understanding the potential effects of transition on the children and young people`s development Whatever age group I am supporting at some stage I will be working with children or young people going through a transition phase. The term `transition` is applied in different situations in which children and young people will pass through a period of change. As well as more obvious school-based transitions, such as starting school, changing classes or key stage, or passing on to secondary school, children will pass other periods of transition with may lead to long or short term. These may include changes in personal circumstances or experiences, passing through puberty or simply a change in activity i the classroom.

Different types of transition include: * Emotional – for example, bereavement, entering/leaving care * Physical – for example, moving to a new educational establishment, a new home/locality from one activity to another * Physiological – for example, puberty, long-term medical conditions * Intellectual – for example, moving from pre-school to primary or post-primary It is important that children have positive relationships during periods of transition, as they will need to feel secure in other areas of their lives. They may need to talk to someone about how they are feeling and make sure that there is opportunities for them to do this.

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Development of Children and Youth. (2018, Oct 12). Retrieved from

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