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Chemistry thermo lab, Hess's Law

Introduction: In this lab, we will be determining the change in enthalpy for the combustion reaction of magnesium (Mg) using Hess’s law. Procedure: 1. React about 100 mL of 1.00 M hydrochloric acid with 0.80 g of MgO. Note the change in temperature and any qualitative data. 2. React about 100 mL of 1.00 M hydrochloric acid with 0.50 g of Mg. Note the change in temperature and any qualitative data. Raw Data: Quantitative: Reaction, trial Mass (± 0.01 g)…...

Chemistry IA design format

1.0.0- Introduction 1.0.1- Focus Question- If the mass of magnesium reacted with hydrochloric acid is changed will the temperature of the solution increase and the total mass decrease. 1.0.2- Hypothesis- If the mass of magnesium that is reacted with hydrochloric acid is changed the temperature of the solution will increase and the total mass will decrease. 1.0.3- Theory- The reaction between magnesium and hydrochloric reaction is written as follows, Mg(s)+ 2HCL (aq)------ (MgCl2(aq)+H2 (g) (Ng, 2008, pg 1). This reaction…...


My unknown chemical is sodium iodide. This was determined by testing the chemical with cations such as silver nitrate, cobalt (II) nitrate, and copper nitrate. It was also tested with anions: sodium iodide, sodium carbonate, sodium oxalate, and sodium phosphate. It was tested to see if the product will yield a precipitate or solid (cloudiness, power, or crystals) and any color changes that are very similar to the products/changes when all the known cations and anions were tested for changes.…...

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To Determine the Relative Molecular Mass of Chloroacetic Acid

Two drops of phenolphthalein indicator were added to the chloroacetic acid solution to enable us to determine when the solution is neutralized. Phenolphthalein is pink in basic and neutral solutions and colorless in acidic solutions. When 20.8 cm3 � 0.1cm3 of sodium hydroxide were titrated into the flask containing 10.00cm3 � 0.06 cm3 chloracetic acid and two drops of phenolphthalein indicator, the color of the solution changed from colorless to pink, which indicates that the solution has been neutralized. Data…...

Relating Moles to Coefficients of a Chemical Equation

Introduction: The definition of a mole is Avogadro's number (6.02 x 1023) of particles (atoms, molecules, ions, electrons etc.). Moles are a very important part of chemistry especially in stoichiometry since it is part of many other calculation quantities and formulas including molar mass, solution calculations and gas volume calculations. The mole is also used in chemical reactions and equations to calculate the amount of reactant needed to react completely with another reactant or to calculate the product produced from…...

Chemistry Exam 3 (Atomic Theory)

The wavelength of some green light is 530.0 nm. What is the frequency of this green light? 5.66 x 10^14 hz Microwave radiation vs. UV radiation Which has a longer wavelength? Which has a greater frequency? Which has greater energy? Microwave UV UV Microwave ovens emit microwave energy with a wavelength of 12.1 cm. What is the energy of exactly one photon of this microwave radiation? 1.66 x 10 ^-24 J A certain shade of blue has frequency of 7.32…...

Elements Named From Famous Scientists

Curium named in honor of Pierre and Marie Curie for their investigations in radio activity Einsteinium named after the brilliant physicist Albert Einstein, Time magazine's "Man of the Century" Fermium honors the great Italian nuclear physicist Enrico Fermi Gadolinium first isolated from the mineral gadolinium. Gadolinite was named after John Gadolin, a chemist from Finland Mendelevium named after Demitri Mendeleev, the Russian scientist who is considered to be the "Father of the Periodic Table of Elements" Nobelium honors Alfred Nobel,…...

Rock Candy Crystals

Crystals are formed when atoms line up in patterns and solidify. There are crystals everywhere — in the form of salt, sugar, sand, diamonds, quartz, and many more! To make crystals, you need to make a very special kind of solution called a supersaturated solid solution. Here’s what that means: if you add salt by the spoonful to a cup of water, you’ll reach a point where the salt doesn’t disappear (dissolve) anymore and forms a lump at the bottom…...

Green Chemistry

Chemo-enzymatic synthesis of optically pure rivastigmine intermediate using alcohol dehydrogenase from baker’s yeast. Authors: Madhuresh K. Sethi? , Somashekar R. Bhandya? , Anish Kumar, Nagaraj Maddur, Rohit Shukla,V. S. N. Jayalakshmi Mittapalli Published: Journal of Molecular Catalysis B: Enzymatic 91 (2013) 87– 92 Paper 2 : Asymmetric synthesis of an enantiomerically pure rivastigmine intermediate using ketoreductase Authors : Madhuresh K. Sethi, Somashekar R. Bhandya, Nagaraj Maddur, Rohit Shukla, Anish Kumar, V. S. N. Jayalakshmi Mittapalli Published: Tetrahedron: Asymmetry, Volume 24, Issue 7, 15 April…...

Food Chemistry Options Report

Food Chemistry What is food chemistry? Food chemistry is the application of the actual science that goes into the production, development, and actual creation of the foods we frequently consume. In reality, much more thought as well as actual science goes into the food production and consumption that we as a society divulge in so regularly. It is up to the food chemists to design the most efficient and fastest way to make and preserve both the appeal as well…...

Chemical Processes in Food

The chemical processes that take place inside food determine its nutritional value, taste, texture and freshness. Like any other organic material, food can decompose over a period of time. The importance of food chemistry lies in its ability to counter the effects of decomposition and spoilage and extend the shelf life of foods. Food chemistry is a science that studies the chemical processes that take place in food. All food products are made of biological materials that react and interact…...

Comparison of Classical Homeopathic Methodology and Scholten's Theories

Critically evaluate one homeopathic methodology of your choice and compare it with the classical model. Give an account of the assumptions underpinning the method. Briefly discuss possible clinical situations where this method could be indicated and appropriate. In Aphorism 21 Hahnemann wrote that it is “undeniable that the curative principle in medicines is not in itself perceptible” and that therefore we should “rely on the morbid phenomena which the medicines produce in the healthy body as the sole possible revelation…...

Chemistry Stpm

A - Structural Questions: Question 1. (a)(i) The presence of isotopes 1M (ii) Let the abundance of 63X be a %. The % abundance of 65X. = ( 100 – a ) 1M Relative atomic mass = ( 62. 93 x a) + ( 64. 93 x ( 100 -a) ) 1M 100 63. 55 = 62. 93a + 6493 -64. 3a 100 6355 = -2a + 6500 a = 69. 0% 1M The % abundance of 65X = 100-…...

Chemistry Research Part 1 Acids

Ethanoic acid is non-toxic and is a weak acid [4], meaning it will not do any damage to most surfaces as it does not corrode or bind to other metals, therefore can be easily removed through washing or rinsing it [2]. Disadvantages: Ethanoic Acid is the slowest de-scaler of the three acids, and is therefore the least effective. It also may cause an unpleasant smell, and can have a negative effect on the taste of coffee [6] meaning one would…...

Chemistry Questionnaire

What is meant by the term cis-trans isomerism? How many cis-trans isomers are present in Structure I? Draw any 2 possible cis-trans isomers. (iii) State the physical state of this lipid at room temperature. Explain your answer. [9] (b) Suggest a possible identity for each of the organic compounds A-E below. Explain your reasoning and write balanced equations for the reactions involved where possible. i) A, C11H14O2 is a neutral compound. Hydrolysis of A gives B, C7H6O2 which is a…...

Chemistry Gcse Coursework Rates of Reaction

Investigating how the concentration of sodium-thiosulphate (STS) and hydrochloric acid (HCL) affects the rate of reaction in the experiment. In addition I am also checking how different variables affect my experiment and also how I can make my test more precise, reliable and accurate. Strategy According to my results, as the concentration of STS solution increased the rate of reaction of my experiment was increased. Also as the concentration of STS solution decreased, the time of reaction increased. In my…...

Chemistry Energy Levels

The energy of the subshell increases as follows:4s<4p<4d<4f * “4s” has the greatest probability of being close to the nucleus * Subshells are limited to # of electrons they can hold ( 2 electrons per orbital) s=21s orbital d=105d orbital p=63p orbitals f=147f orbitals Assessment * How many p subshells are in the 4th energy level (n=4)? 34px 4py 4pz * What is the maximum number of electrons that can occupy the 4p subshell? each p subshell can hold 2…...

Chemistry class xii project

Theory What is rust? Rust is the common name of a compound, iron oxide. Iron oxide, the chemical Effie, is common because iron combines very readily with oxygen so readily, in fact, that pure Iron Is only rarely found In nature. Iron (or steel) rusting Is an example of corrosion an electrochemical process involving an anode (a piece of metal that readily gives up electrons), an electrolyte (a liquid that helps electrons move) and a cathode (a piece of metal…...

Chemistry and Computers

But often the device simply acts as the electronic equivalent of an on-off switch. When on, it completes a circuit and lets current flow; when off, it breaks the electrical path. • lone transistors suck- strength in numbers • Transistors are possible because the semiconductors they’re built from—elements like silicon and germanium—have one strange and very useful property: They carry electricity better than insulators, such as glass, but not as well as conductors—aluminum for example. Scientists can push a semiconductor’s…...

Chemistry 208 All QUIZ

The Scientific Method Step 1: Performing Experiments Step 2: Making Observations Step 3: Proposing a Hypothesis Step 4: Confirming the Hypothesis Step 5: Proposing a Scientific Law Scientific Notation It is a mathematical expression in which a number is expressed as N x 10^n where N contains only one nonzero digit to the left of the decimal and n is an integer. Rules for Determining Significant Figures (digits) -All nonzero digits are significant figures -Counting begins from the left with…...

Chemical and Physical Properties

Observe the solubility in hot water. c. Tear off approximately 1/2-cm pieces of both red and blue litmus paper. d. Allow the solution to cool, and using the glass stirring rod, transfer a drop of the solution onto a piece of litmus paper. Record the results. Clean the stirring rod. 5. Third test tube: a. Add a few pipet drops of HCl (hydrochloric acid) to the sample and stir. NOTE: Use the test tube holderclamp as some reactions are exothermic,…...

Allelopathic Effects in Biology

Introduction Considering the beneficial properties of plants, not only to us, but the environment as well, it is important to understand the nature of Allelopathy and how it affects plant ecology. According to the Topics in Biology Laboratory Manuel, allelopathy refers to “the beneficial or harmful effects of one plant on another plant, by the release of chemicals from plant parts in both natural and agricultural systems.” By secretion of biochemical materials, allelopathy involves a plant’s ability to inhibit germination…...

A Discussion of Paulo Freire's Banking Concept of Education

Freire implies that teachers are only telling students what to know rather than conversting with them, which explains why Freire insists that “education is suffering from narration sickness”(Freire 71). This means that he believes that educators only fill student’s minds with information, that the teacher feels is important, without providing the students the meaning and personal relevance that information has. By using this method, the student is oppressed by the teacher and unable to fulfill a complete state of consciousness.…...

Adenosine Triphos Phate

Enzymes function like a lock and key. The substrate binds to the active site of the enzyme like a key into a lock. The enzyme breaks the bonds of the substrate and releases it without being consumed in the process. Substrates can also function as inhibitors, competing for the active site. (Wolfe, 2000). Sometimes one enzyme will work on one particular substrate, in other circumstances, such as with fructose, two or more enzymes work to break down a substrate so…...

Placstic Century

When modern man discovered plastic and its myriad of uses, there was no turning back. Today, plastics figured prominently in the lives of 21st century people. It is almost impossible to live comfortably without this substance. And among the many kinds of polymer there is perhaps nothing more versatile and very much in demand than acrylic polymers. This paper will look into the chemical properties and the myriad of uses for the compound normally designated as PMMA or Polymethyl methacrylate.…...

Acids and Alkalis Lab Report

An acid is a group of chemicals. Acids are positively charged ions, they are liquid and are solutions of pure compounds in water. If you want to know if something is an acid, you can test it by using litmus paper. Acids will turn litmus paper red, whilst alkalis will turn it blue. Alkalis are negatively charged ions and are usually solid. Aim:To find out how much of different acids is needed to neutralize 25mls of sodium hydroxide solution (NaOH).…...

Titration Lab - Experiment

The equivalence point is characterized by a sharp change of pH which can be followed with a pHmeter. A graph of pH versus concentration will indicate the molar equivalence at the inflexion point of the curve. The point observed experimentally is never exactly the molar equivalence but a “best estimate” and is given the name “end point”. It is easier and cheaper to identify the end point with an indicator instead a pHmeter. Some chemicals such as phenolphthalein will change…...

Mark Ratner’s Concepts of Molecular Electronics

Mark Ratner and The Basis of the Future: Molecular Electronics Levent BahadA±rhan KarakuAY 2. Introduction Mark Ratner, He is professor of chemistry and professor of materials science and engineering at Northwestern University. He studies the theory of fundamental chemical processes related to nanoscale application. Ratner is a member of the Internatioanal Academy of Quantum Molecular Science also, His lectures subjects were “Transport in molecular Junctions”and “Nano and Energy” at Stanfort University at 2009. I choose Mark Ratner because, Topic of Nano technology…...

Probiotics Market Value

Probiotics the healthy bugs are increasingly used as pharmaceuticals now- a- days rather than as a component of our daily diet. The rising trend in probiotic market value generates a need for proper regulations as like drugs. The present review focuses on the need for harmonized evaluatory guidelines for probiotics across the globe. The existing regulations on probiotics and recommendations for the future are discussed in this Guidance Document. Apart from the wide range of beneficial effects of probiotics they…...

Plant Biodiversity: Stigmasterol

Each plant in the nature is unique not only to be a part of biodiversity but also for the certain medicinal value. Medicinal properties of the various plant species is due to the presence of particular unique type of medicinally important chemical compounds. There are variable in different plant species. The chemical compound concentrations of inside of the plant body in each individual of the plant species are found to be differing. Plants are used as an essential source of…...

Bioconcrete Strength, Durability, Permeability, Recycling

Use of concrete dates back to 3000BC and was only used for industrial purposes. But as time passes it has become one of the most standard materials used and even plays a major role in the infrastructure sector. This fact itself makes it a potential subject for researchers who are in line to concrete production and development. However present-day research shows that some of the current concrete treatment methods, such as the application of chemicals and polymers in the production…...

Chromite: The Only Mineral Ore of Chromium Metal

Introduction Preface Chromite is one of the spinel group minerals, general formula is [(Mg, Fe+2) (Cr, Al, Fe+3)2O4], in generally chromite is a sensitive indicator mineral and used to constrain the petrogenesis of mantle Peridotite (Dick & Bullen, 1984; Arai, 1992; Kapsiotis, 2013). Chromite is the only economic Chromium mineral, different compositional types of chromite will be seen in the nature, such as High-chromium Chromite, High-Iron Chromite and High-Aluminum Chromite. Chromite ore is deposited as Load chromite ore deposit (…...

To start off ecology and chemistry have many related

To start off ecology and chemistry have many related environmental issues. One example would be oil spills that contaminate the aquatic. The largest oil spill in history was in the Persian Gulf, Kuwait on January 19th, 1991. During the gulf war, the forces from Iraq kept the American soldiers from landing in their area by leaving valves open on an offshore oil terminal and dumped the oil that was used in the tankers as a way to prevent the American…...

Discovery of New Drug

INTRODUCTION The discovery of new drug not only requires its design and synthesis but also the development of testing methods and procedure, which are needed to establish how a substance operates in the body and its suitability for use as drug. The pharmaceutical industry and in particular medicinal chemist has a continued commitment to discovery, developing and marketing new medicines or to minimize the number and magnitude of undesirable properties of already existing drugs while retaining their desirable therapeutic activity.…...

Each plant in the nature is unique not only to be a

Each plant in the nature is unique not only to be a part of biodiversity but also for the certain medicinal value. Medicinal properties of the various plant species is due to the presence of particular unique type of medicinally important chemical compounds. There are variable in different plant species. The chemical compound concentrations of inside of the plant body in each individual of the plant species are found to be differing. Plants are used as an essential source of…...

Aspirin Production

In the past, many people were suffering from headaches because the treatments have not existed. In that time the world suffered from heart attacks which caused many deaths because there were no preventions for heart attacks. Therefore, scientists worked on discovering new compounds and substances to cure and treat health problems. In 1870 professor Von Nicki showed that Salicin was converted into salicylic acid in the body. Then the salicylic acid was used for patients who were suffering from fever…...

Lead: Chemical Element

Lead Chemistry Lead also known as plumbum (Pb) is a chemical element with an atomic number of 82 and atomic mass of 207 that is found in group four (IVa) of the periodic table. It is found in the lead group of metals. It is denser, soft, and malleable with a relatively low melting point. Although lead is not very common in the earth's crust, what is there is readily available and easy to refine. Its chief use today is…...

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