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Extraction of Caffeine from Tea Leaves

ABSTRACT: Caffeine is a white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that acts as a stimulant drug. Caffeine is found in varying quantities in the seeds, leaves, and fruit of some plants. It is most commonly consumed by humans in infusions extracted from the seed of the coffee plant and the leaves of the tea bush, as well as from various foods and drinks containing products derived from the kola nut. The water soluble materials in the tea leaves are extracted into hot…...

The Chemistry of Hair Coloring

The very first thing that enters your mind when individuals see hair color is "charm." But, what most do not understand is that chemistry plays a significant role in lots of daily items. What makes the colors so pretty and attractive? How can hair color result artificial hair? The concern I want to address is "what are the results of hair color on synthetic hair?" I selected this subject since I wished to discover how to color hair and use…...

Oxidation of Cyclododecanol to Cyclododecanone

The determination of the oxidation state of a carbon atom can be used to find a change in the oxidation state. The rules used assign carbon a formal oxidation state based on +1 for any atom less electronegative than carbon, -1 for atoms more electronegative, and 0 for C-C bonds. The carbon must bear an oxidation number that makes this sum equal zero. Increasing the oxidation state or oxidation number of the carbon atom is called an oxidation reaction. This…...

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Chemistry and Biotechnology

ABSTRACT Elemental analysis of natural compounds identify the aspects present in them however they do not provide the real structure or the functional groups present. Considering that all organic substances consist of hydrogen and carbon, most tests include just the decision of oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen and halogens-- elements that are most of the time the only ones involved in organic substances. The experiment focused on the Sodium Combination test, which checked for all aspects other than oxygen. In the test,…...

Preparation of Alum from Aluminum Metal

The objective of the laboratory is to synthesize alum (KAl(SO4)2.xH2O) from aluminum powder and to determine the proportion of water in the alum crystals. Alum is a product from the reaction between potassium hydroxide and sulfuric acid. The reaction include several steps, as followed: Aluminum powder reacts with potassium hydroxide to generate Al(OH)4- ions and release hydrogen. 2 Al(s) + 2 KOH(aq) + 6 H2O 2 K[Al(OH)4](aq) + 3 H2 (g) A gelatinous precipitate of aluminum hydroxide was created when…...

Mercury Drug Macro Environment

Demographics Mercury Drugstore’s Primary Target Market Demographics : Ages ranging from 18 to 65 years old who may be male or female that belong to any social class – B, C, D, and E Marital status – no specific status. The available market size using research data show that 6 out of 10 Filipinos are now opting for generic medicines over the more expensive branded counterparts. For a $2 Billion Pharmaceutical market in the Philippines $1.2 Billion (60%) - Generics…...

Alum Lab Conclusion for Science Class

The purpose of this laboratory was to use two different techniques to attempt to identify the melting point and the mole ratio of hydrated water to anhydrous aluminum, potassium, and sulfate of AlKSO4. The hypotheses were: if the alum was put in a capillary tube the melting point of alum will be able to be determined; and the water of hydration in alum crystals will be possible to determine if the alum is heated with a Bunsen burner. Results Every…...

Physical and Chemical Properties

Purpose: The Physical and Chemical Properties lab provides the opportunity to investigate the physical and chemical properties of pure chemical substances and analyze the experiment results. Procedure: In the beginning of the experiment, I filled two 24-well plates half way with the given chemicals and sucked up these chemicals into their labeled pipets for later use. Following this, I performed a number of steps on each of the four test tubes and recorded observations of the different substances including odor,…...

Determination of Heat of Solution

ABSTRACT Thermodynamic values can be determined using the Vant Hoff isochore method. This method entails the use of equilibrium systems to determine the change in enthalpy of the solution, which can b related to the change in internal energy of the solution. The van't Hoff isochore relates the equilibrium constant of a chemical reaction at one temperature to the equilibrium constant of the same reaction at a different temperature, allowing it to be worked out for all temperatures if it…...

Dehydration of Methylcyclohexanol

A common Sophomore Organic Chemistry laboratory experiment that has great potential for further research is the acid catalyzed dehydration of simple alcohols. The classic dehydration of 2-methylcyclohexanol experiment that was introduced in Journal of Chemical Education in 1967 Taber(1967)JCE:44,p620. The rather simple procedure of distilling an alcohol with an aqueous acid has spawned several investigations that have resulted in formal journal articles. At the same time, the experiment has retained its popularity in the Sophomore Organic Chemistry laboratory curriculum. In…...

Lab Experiment

Abstract: A calorimeter, water at room temperature, ice, and a Pasco GLS Explorer were used in combination with a known value of the latent heat of fusion to create and carry out an experiment to determine the mass of an unknown amount of ice. Using the formula for latent heat of fusion, the mass of the ice was calculated to be 45.76g. The error of the carried out experiment was calculated to be 20.06%. Introduction: A substance requires energy to…...

Pharmaceutical Science and My Interest in Chemistry

I pursued bachelor of pharmacy from Sarada Vilas College of pharmacy, Mysore One of the best academic institutions for pharmacy under Rajiv Gandhi University of health sciences. Prospective Interest------ chemistry Pharmaceutical science is a multi faceted field, which incorporates a myriad number of subjects, which Include biotechnology, physiology, pharmacology, pharmaceutics, molecular biology so on and so forth. But one field that stands out in its contribution to pharmacy is chemistry. The four years of my course work in B-pharmacy have…...

Oxidation of Cyclohexanone to Adipic Acid

The cyclic ketone cyclohexanone was oxidized to adipic acid using the oxidizing agent nitric acid. The experiment yielded 0.2667 grams of adipic acid, giving a percent yield of 113.97%. Although the product was allowed to dry for one week, residual moisture was still present in the sample and a melting point could not be obtained. This error in the experiment either resulted from adding too much water or not allowing the product to remain in the Hirsch vacuum filtration for…...

Osmosis Lab Report

Abstract: The objectives of this lab was to be able to create models of cells with the dialysis tubing to show us how the plasma membrane is selectively permeable, to study the effects of osmosis on a model cell, and to foresee the effect of solute concentration on osmosis. In order to achieve these objectives, we had to fill the dialysis tubing with either water, or different amounts of sucrose. We then tied off the tubes and put them into…...

Osmolarity: Concentration and Sucrose Solutions

My group and I conducted the experiment that estimates osmolarity by change in weight of potato tubers, this was conducted in order to explore the process of diffusion and osmosis and more importantly to investigate the question of “Does different concentrations of sucrose solutions have an effect on the final weight for the potato tubers?” In this experiment we estimated the osmolarity of potato tuber cores by submersing different potato cores into sucrose solutions of 0.0-0.6M, and weighing the potato.…...

Metal Lab

Data Analysis:  What was the temperature change for the water in the calorimeter (ΔTwater)? 3°C What was the temperature change for the metal sample (ΔTmetal)? Assume the intial temperature of the metal was the same as the temperature of the water it was boiled in. 70°C  What was the specific heat of water in J/g°C? 4.186 J/g°C Using the following equation, your answers to questions 1-3, and your data table, determine the specific heat of the metal sample you tested.…...

Copper Cycle Lab

Purpose During this experiment, we were trying to see whether copper, after a chain of chemical reactions, will revert back to its elemental form. Procedure First, I added nitric acid with copper in a beaker, which turned into a copper nitrate, a blue-green solution. Afterwards, I added sodium hydroxide, and my solution colored to a dark blue solution called copper hydroxide. I heated the solution to evaporate the water and I got a brownish-blackish solid called copper oxide. Once the…...

Bioilogical Experimentes

Diffusion and osmosis are very important in biological process. Diffusion is the movement of molecules or ions from a region of their high concentration to a region of their low concentration. Osmosis is the diffusion of water molecules across a semipermeable membrane. To gain a better understanding of diffusion and osmosis, we examine multiple experiments to show diffusion and osmosis in animal cell, plant cell and synthetic cell. In our first experiment, we weight a decalcified chicken egg and place…...

Chemistry Lab Experiment: The Flame Test

Flame test: AIM: To determine which part of the salt is responsible for the characteristics in the flame. HYPOTHESIS: If we introduce a metal salt in the blue flame of the Bunsen burner, then the colour given off by the flame is due to the metal part of the salt. METHOD: (1)With a heat proof mat under the Bunsen burner, turn the gas on and light up the Bunsen burner with matches. (2)Pour enough Hydrochloric acid into a beaker. (3)Using…...

Periodic Table and Sodium

Sodium, one of many elements in the periodic table is being used in everyday life, it is also an essential element within your body. It is just another element, but one of the differences is that this element is something that most people consume every day. Sodium has played an important role in everyday life because of its uses in medicine, industry, and agriculture(Shriver). Sodium was discovered in 1807 by a man named Sir Humphrey Davy. He was well known…...

Chemistry Soya Milk

This project has been chosen in view of increasing demand of milk and also due to higher expectations of good quality and low fat diet requirements of the people with better awareness. Also the requirement for such quality products is more acute today. In this project I have prepared soy milk from soyabeans and have compared the conditions of formation of good quality cow milk yogurt and soy milk yogurt. I have also tried to find the effect of temperature…...

Food Chemistry

The chemical processes that occur inside food identify its dietary worth, taste, texture and freshness. Like any other organic product, food can decompose over a time period. The value of food chemistry depends on its ability to counter the results of decomposition and putridity and extend the rack life of foods. Food chemistry is a science that studies the chemical processes that happen in food. All foodstuff are made from biological materials that react and engage in various methods, and…...

Chemistry of Chocolate

Chocolate is made from the cacao bean. According to Rodney Lipson, “Cacao has been a cultivated crop for at least three thousand years, probably quite a bit more. The people who first utilized Cacao were the inhabitants of what is now Venezuela” (Lipson) This group of people would eventually spread the cacao bean in northwestern South America. Cacao was clearly highly valued by these people and they spread it northward through trade with their neighbors. It was probably the Maya,…...

Cooking Is Chemistry

Cooking is chemistry. Everything is essentially chemical reactions. If you don’t mix the correct amount of grams of one element with another the product can result to be horrendous. The formula of sugar is C12H22O11. When you mix a certain amount of that into a solution of water with the addition of tea you a drink called sweet tea. Let’s say you mix add more C12H22O11 than water. Then your product will be syrup; a completely different mixture and ingredient.…...

Quantitative Determination of Sulfate by Gravimetric Analysis

Synopsis: This report is written about determining the quantitative amount of sulphate inside barium sulphate, BaSO₄, using the method of gravimetric analysis. This quantitative determination is done by the addition of a dilute solution of barium chloride slowly to a hot unknown sulfate solution slightly acidified by concentrated hydrochloric acid, HCl. The white precipitate of barium sulphate is filtered off, washed with water, oven-dried, and weighed as barium sulphate. The quantitative amount of sulphate is deduced from mathematical calculations. The…...

Standardization of sodium hydroxide by ethanedioic acid solution

Experiments: 1. Standardization of sodium hydroxide by ethanedioic acid solution 2. Determination of the concentration of commercial colourless vinegar Standardization of sodium hydroxide by ethanedioic acid Objective: To determine the molarity of sodium hydroxide. As the molarity of the sodium hydroxide is unknown, in order to standardize it, the concentration of the acid has to be known. Result: Titration Trial 1 2 3 4 Initial burette reading() 18. 33 8. 05 7. 52 8. 21. Final burette reading() 45. 48…...

Determination of the equilibrium constant for esterification

Esterification is the reaction of a carboxylic acid with an alcohol. This experiment is an esterification response between ethanoic acid and propan-1-ol when warmed: CH3COOH(aq) + CH3CH2CH2OH(aq) < CH3COOCH2CH2CH3(aq) + H2O(l) The development of propyl ethanoate is especially well-suited to the decision of the stability constant. The reaction is sluggish enough at room temperature level so the order of mixing, temperature level variations over the reaction time and even a last titration with a strong base just have little effect…...

Determination of Ksp of Copper(II) Iodate by E.M.F. Measurement

Introduction: Copper(II) iodate(V) ionizes weakly in water: Cu(IO3)2 + aq Cu2+(aq) + 2IO3-(aq) For a saturated solution of copper(II) iodate(V), concentration of IO3- ions doubles that of the Cu2+ (aq) ions, and Ksp of Cu(IO3)2(s) can be calculated by determining the concentration of Cu2+(aq) ion of a saturated Cu(IO3)2(aq). The e.m.f. of a galvanic cell consisting of a Zn(s)/Zn2+(aq) half-cell and another half-cell containing a copper strip in contact with a saturated solution of Cu(IO3)2(aq) is measured by a commercial…...

Importance of laboratory design

As part of my assignment I am going to analyse why good laboratory design is important for efficiency, effectiveness, safety and security purposes. The main aim of sufficient laboratory design is to accommodate dynamic lab space that will elevate utility, enhance the activity, and fundamentally efficiency. Also exceptionally examining and estimating complex in service affair according to waste flow, supplies, test volumes, staff, workstations, specimens, etc. Great laboratory design will improve a lab environment. Along with catching within attention the…...

Is sulphuric acid dibasic?

In this plan I shall demonstrate that sulphuric acid is dibasic. In order to do this affectively I will plan experiment using scientific techniques. The experiment will involve titration. I will then validate these experiments using calculations and appropriate chemistry knowledge. The reactants I have selected that will neutralise sulphuric acid are shown below in the equations: Reactants used in Titration and products obtained: H2SO4 (aq) + 2NaOH (aq) --> Na2SO4 (aq) + 2H2O (l) Background knowledge The acid (sulphuric…...

Reaction Between Iodine and Propanone

Outcomes Group A Time when reaction mixture was included to NaHCO3 (s) Volume of Na2S2O3 added (cm3) Group E Time when reaction mix was contributed to NaHCO3 (s) Volume of Na2S2O3 included (cm3) 0 Questions: 1. Compose a balanced chemical equation to represent the response in between iodine and propanone in acidic medium. 2. What is the function of the salt hydrogencarbonate? Sodium hydrogencarbonate option is utilized to quench the reaction in this experiment. When the reaction mix is transferred…...

To study the effect of dilution

Objective: To study the effect of dilution, concentration of water and temperature on the rate of the chemical reaction between methanal (HCHO), sodium sulphite (Na2SO3) and sodium hydrogensulphite (NaHSO3). Chemicals: 0. 3 M methanal about 100 cm3 solution B (containing 0. 20 M NaHSO3 and 0. 05 M Na2SO3) about 100 cm3 phenolphthalein indicator several dropping bottles shared Apparatus: Boiling tube x 6 100 cm3 beaker x 2 Glass rod x 1 250 cm3 beaker x 1 stop watch x…...

Types of chemical reactions lab

Copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate crystals are light blue and granular. After being heated, the crystals turned into a white powder and condensation formed in the upper part of test tube. It is represented by the equation CuSO4•5(H2O)(s) > CuSO4(s) + 5(H2O)(g) When 5 drops of water were added to the white powder, bubbling occurred and the powder turned into a blue liquid, and then into the original blue coloured crystals (copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate). It is represented by the equation…...

"Chemistry" written by Graham Swift

In the opening of the story, Graham Swift utilizes descritptive composing to provide us a striking image of the pond, where he went with his grandfather and mom, "The pond in our park was circular, exposed, possibly fifty backyards throughout. When the wind blew, the little waves travelled throughout it and slapped the paved edges like a minature sea." This assists the reader acquire a more exact image in their head of the park where the narrator is, and it…...

The rate of reaction

The experiment will end when I take the third reading of 30cmi??sodium thiosulphate solution, 20cmi?? water. The safety goggles are the most important aspect of the experiment, as it is crucial to maintain a high standard of safety when working with corrosive chemicals. Diagram: Graph to show predicted appearance of results Method and Results I carried the experimental investigation as stated in the Plan section, under Experimental Procedure. Having gained satisfactory results, I have arranged them in a table. Table…...

Chemical Expetiment

In this experiment, we shall be adding sodium thiosulphate to hydrochloric acid together and placing a drawn cross underneath and seeing how long the rate of reaction lasts until you cannot see this cross. Before the reaction starts, the liquids are both clear. When added they turn cloudy and milky with a yellow tinge to it, due to the sulphur released. Na2S203 (aq) + 2HCL --> 2Nacl (aq) + H20 (l) + SO2 (g) + S(s) Sodium thiosulphate + hydrochloric…...

Chemistry IA: Electrolysis of Metal Sulphate solutions

Introduction Electrolysis is the chemical decomposition of a compound by applying an electric current through a solution containing ions. Electrolytes are required to conduct electricity. They must be dissolved in water or in molten state for the electrolytes to conduct because then, the ions are free to move allowing the solution to be electrolyzed.[1] In electrolysis, reduction happens at the cathode whilst oxidation happens at the anode. Reduction is the loss of electrons and oxidation is the gain of electrons.…...

Chemistry Investigation to find the Empirical Formula of Magnesium Oxide

During the experiment the crucible used was slightly damaged however did not continue to break or cause any inconvenience to the investigation. For approximately ten minutes, no reaction was visible. The substance contained no odour. After approximately fifteen minutes the piece of magnesium commenced to burn with an overall duration of twenty minutes. When burnt, the magnesium converted to bright orange colour. During the reaction the lid of the crucible was lifted to see any changes or if the magnesium…...

Experimental Molar Enthalpy of Neutralization for Sodium Hydroxide Solution

1. For information regarding the problem, prediction, materials and procedure, please see attached Measurements Table for Molar Enthalpy of Neutralization for Sodium Hydroxide Solution Substance Instrument Used Measurement Sodium hydroxide 100mL graduated cylinder (±0.2mL) 50.0mL Sulfuric acid 100mL graduated cylinder (±0.2mL) 30.0mL Temperature of sodium hydroxide solution Thermometer (±0.2ËC) 26.0ËC Temperature of the sulfuric acid Thermometer (±0.2ËC) 24.0ËC Final temperature reached by solution Thermometer (±0.2ËC) 34.5ËC Initial and Final Temperatures of Solutions Temperature of sodium hydroxide solution (±0.2ËC) 26.0ËC Temperature…...

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