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Chemistry Essay Examples

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Heat of neutralization

Discussions: 1.Why theoretical value different from value obtained? It may heat loss to the surroundings. It may have parallax error during taking the reading. 2.Why is usually the cup used in this experiment made of polystyrene? To prevent heat loss to the surroundings because it is a heat insulator. 3.Why the heat of neutralization has a negative sign? The reaction gives out heat that results in the increase of temperature of the products formed. I. Discussion During this experiment, the pressure…...

Heptane/1-Hexanol Intermolecular Forces

The boiling point reflects the strength of forces between molecules. The more tightly bonded the molecules are, the more energy is required to convert them into gases. These forces are called intermolecular forces. There are 3 types, dispersion forces, dipole-dipole and hydrogen bonding. The influence of these attractive forces will depend on the functional groups present. For example heptane has boiling point of 98.4 degrees (1) and 1-hexanol has boiling point of 157 degrees. (2) The fact that heptane has…...

Rate of Diffusion

To test the effect of molecular weight on the rate of diffusion, various experiments were performed. One of which is the glass tube test wherein cotton balls of the same size were moistened in two different substances (NH4OH and HCl). These cotton balls were plugged at each side of a glass tube. After some time, formation of a white ring occurred. The white ring, in fact, is a product of the reaction between the molecules of ammonia (NH3) and hydrochloric…...

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Atoms, Molecules and Elements

Atoms, molecules and elements are the building blocks of everything we can see, hear, and touch. Though not visible to the naked eye, it is the combination of millions of these tiny substances that make us who and what we are today. Many elements make up the world around us, and each element reacts differently to its surroundings. The definition of reactivity as pertained to chemistry states, “The relative capacity of an atom, molecule, or radical to undergo a chemical…...

Chemistry practice skills

What type of forces must be conquered when strong I2 liquifies in methanol, CH3OH? Caused dipole What type of forces must be disrupted between CH3OH particles when I2 dissolves? Hydrogen bonding What type of forces exist between I2 and CH3OH molecules in service? Dipole-Induced Dipole 4) What type of intermolecular forces must be overcome in converting each of the following from a liquid to a gas? a) CO2 London forces, dipole-dipole b) NH3 London forces, dipole-dipole, hydrogen c) CHCl3 London…...

Chemistry In Daily Life

INFORMATIVE SPEECH TOPICS The main questions for picking out good informative speech topics are: What are their wishes, tastes, interests and needs? What is their level of education and knowledge about the topic? Is their a common ground between you and your audience? Can you surprise them with new information? Can you excite their interest by expanding on what your listeners already know? Are you having trouble coming up with speech topics? This list of informative speech topics is only…...

Introduction to Chemical Engineering

Chapter 1: Introduction to Chemical Engineering Profession Teach (T) Students are exposed to a topic. No explicit learning objectives. No major activities such as assignments, exercises of projects. No assessment is linked to this topic. Use (U) There is an explicit learning objective. Compulsory activities such as assignments, exercises or projects are specifically linked to this topic. Students are assessed and received feedback, it may or may not affect grade Assess (A) Students are assumed to already have some proficiency…...

Role of Chemistry in Our Society

INTRODUCTION Common people may not have the actual knowledge of chemistry and it's contribution. But they aware of the comforts which science has provided to the society. The modern technology, advances in medicines, fastest means of transport, durable and beautiful clothes, good fertilisers etc. are a few common things will which every one is familiar. It should not be taken as any surprise if one finds that chemistry plays leading role in serving all aspects of life. As a matter…...

Mercury Footwear Questions

1. Is Mercury an appropriate target for AGI? Why or why not? Yes, we do think so. In the case, we could find some characteristics of footwear industry: (1) It is a mature, highly competitive industry marked by low growth, but stable profit margin. (2) Performance of individual firms could be quite volatile for they need to anticipate and exploit fashion trend. (3) Except some global footwear brands, athletic and casual shoes market is still fragmented, which means each company…...

Chemical Sucrose Research

What is the role of 0.25M sucrose as the medium for the fractionation process? Cold sucrose does not chemically react with cell organelles. Due to the density and size of sucrose molecules, it is able to suspend pellets for configuration while providing a solution where the centrifugation can be better balanced Sucrose offers a liquid medium in which less dense fractions can be poured off as supernatant at the end of each centrifugation step. 0.25M sucrose solution is isotonic and…...

“Nanotechnology-implications and future”

‘Nanotechnology’ is actually a fairly new idea .Nanotechnology is engineering, science, and technology which is conducted on nanoscale .It is the manipulation of matter on an atomic and molecular scale.It is applicable in all the fields of science such as Biology, Materials science ,Physics and Engineering . Nanoscience involves the ability to examine and to control individual atoms and molecules .Scientists currently match the future implications of nanotechnology.Nanoscience or Nanotechnology is able to create many new materials and devices with…...

What organic molecule can be detected with Lugol’s?

When we put the Lugol’s regent (I2Kl) in the beaker, we can observe the effects of osmosis as the Lugol’s regent (I2Kl) solution on the outside of the beaker permeates the intestine (Dialysis tubing) inducing a chemical reaction that will turn the liquid in the intestine (Dialysis tubing) blue-black. If the amylase successfully digests the starch, what results would you expect? If the amylase successfully digests the starch, I would expect a no color change occur as well as a…...

Mercury Athletic

The footwear industry is a mature, very competitive with low growth and stable profit margins. Active Gear, Inc. is a privately held footwear company which is a profitable firm in the industry with $470.3 million revenue in 2006. West Coast Fashions, Inc is a large business of men’s and women’s apparel decided to dispose of one of their divisions: Mercury Athletic with $431.1 million revenue in 2006. AGI is very profitable but it is smaller than other competitors, which is…...

Aristo Book 5 experiment answer

HKDSE CHEMISTRY – A Modern View (Chemistry) Experiment Workbook 5 Suggested answers Chapter 52 Importance of industrial processes Chapter 53 Rate equation Experiment 53.1 Determining the rate equation of a reaction using method of initial rate (A microscale experiment) 1 Chapter 54 Activation energy Experiment 54.1 Determining the activation energy of a chemical reaction 3 Chapter 55 Catalysis and industrial processes Experiment 55.1 Investigating the action of a catalyst 6 Experiment 55.2 Investigating homogeneous catalysis 8 Experiment 55.3Investigating ways to…...

Simultaneous Determination of Several Thermodynamic Quantities

I. INTRODUCTION The solubility product constant, Ksp​, is the equilibrium constant for a solid substance dissolving in an aqueous solution. It represents the level at which a solute dissolves in solution. A more a substance dissolves, the higher the Ksp value it has. In this experiment, a system of a sparingly soluble salt in water is studied. From the solubility information at various temperatures, the changes in standard enthalpy, standard entropy, and standard free energy were established. II. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND…...

Extended Experimental Investigation

Abstract: Cold packs are based on the principle of endothermic reactions, which means a reaction that absorbs heat from the surrounding resulting in a temperature drop. Due to this temperature drop, cold packs have many benefits when it comes to injuries such as sprains and strains. It cools the local tissue and reduces bleeding, swelling and pain. It also aids in a speedy recovery. The most commonly used chemical in instant cold packs is ammonium nitrate which will be tested…...

Beer's Law Lab

Objective: The purpose of this lab is to demonstrate that there is a linear relationship between the number of molecules that can absorb light present in a solution and the amount of light absorbed by a solution. This lab should prove that Beer’s law and the equation A=a x b x c, is a linear relationship. Procedure: The only deviations in the lab procedure was that the stock solution was made before arrival to the lab with 0.570 g of…...

Mercury Athletic Footwear: Valuing the Opportunity

Team 10 / Mergers and Acquisitions West Coast Fashions, Inc (WCF) was a large business, which dealt with men’s and women’s apparel. One of their segments was Mercury Athletic Footwear. WCF wanted to dispose off this segment. They just wanted to divest because they wanted to focus more on their core business and move it up to the elite class. John Liedtke was the Business Development Head at that time in Active Gear Inc. He had a clear idea that…...

Observation of Chemical changes

Abstract: The purposes of this lab is to observe the reactions of some common chemicals contained in consumer products and observe the macroscopic changes these chemicals undergo. Purpose: The purpose of the lab is to be able to interpret underlying macroscopic changes in terms of the behavior of atoms and molecules and also to learn how to separate mixtures into their component substances by solubility. Procedures/Materials Needed: 1 Toothpicks 1 Sheet of white and dark paper 1 Paper towel 1…...

Scientific Investigation of the Peroxidase Enzyme & Temperature

Abstract In this lab we tested the effect temperature has on the rate of enzyme activity. The way we figured this out was by taking four different temperatures and testing the different absorbance levels they produced every 20 seconds for two minutes straight using a spectrophotometer. The important part of this experiment was the temperature the enzyme concentration was made at. What we got from the experiment was at lower temperature we got very low numbers for the absorbance, which…...

Star Apple (Chrysophyllum cainito) as an Antiseptic Mouthwash

a. Background of the Study As an effective mouthwash is one that does not only make the breath fresh but also serves as an antiseptic. It should not simply mask the effective mouth odor caused by excessive activity of anaerobic bacteria inhabiting the mouth. There is a need to prevent the increase in the population. b. Statement of the Problem A mouthwash is a solution in addition to regular oral hygiene methods such as brushing and flossing. Alternative mouth gargles…...

Microscale Techniques

1. NaOH is a very corrosive chemical and contact with it can cause burns to body tissue and possible eye damage. Can irriate the lungs and can cause permanent lung damage. also contact with water can generate enought heat to ignite combustibles. 2. In your own words, briefly explain the terms below. Copied answers will receive zero points. a. equilibrium state When a chemical reaction is equal. when the products and reactients are at equal rates b. the effect of…...

Extraction and Evaporation Recrystallization

1. To the components of a simulated pharmaceutical preparation, Panacetin, and identifying the unknown component of the mixture through extraction and separation methods. 2. To learn how to purify by recrystallization, how to dry them and how to obtain a melting point. PRECAUTION: ACETANILIDE AND PHENACETIN ARE EYE AND SKIN IRRITANTS. Minimize contact with your unknown compound. THEORY: In this experiment, Panacetin, a pharmaceutical preparation will be separated from its components by making use of their solubilities and acid-base properties.…...

Determining the Mole Ratios During Science Class

The purpose of this lab was to determine the mole ratios of the reactants hypochlorite ion (OCI) and thiosulfate (S O) when reacted in a chemical reaction. A chemical equation gives the mole ratios of the reactants and products involved in the chemical reaction. When some formulas of the products are not known, experimental measurements can be made to determine those ratios. During this reaction, hypochlorite ions oxidize the thiosulfate ions according to the unbalanced and incomplete reaction below. A…...

Limiting Reactant

In chemical reactions, the significance of knowing the limiting reactant is high. In order to increase the percent yield of product, increasing the limiting reactant, possibly, is the most effective. In this experiment we were able to calculate limiting reactants from the reaction of CaCl2. 2H2O + K2C2O4.H2O(aq). As a group, we obtained our salt mixture of calcium chloride and potassium oxalate, and weighed the mixture. We were able to make an aqueous solution from the mixture and distilled water.…...

Determining of the equilibrium constant for the formation of FeSCN2+

Determining of the equilibrium constant for the formation of FeSCN2+ Introduction The objective of this experiment was to determine the equilibrium concentration and then determine Kc. A dilution calculation was formed to determine the concentration of SCN- and Fe(SCN)2+. Each cuvette was filled to the same volume and can be seen in table 1. Then the absorbances were recorded from each cuvette and can be seen in table A Beer’s law plot was made from the data that was recorded…...

DNA Extraction

Much can be learned from studying an organisms DNA. The first step to doing this is extracting DNA from cells. In this experiment, you will isolate DNA from the cells of fruit. Materials (1) 10 mL Graduated Cylinder(2) 100 mL Beakers15 cm Cheesecloth1 Resealable Bag1 Rubber Band (Large. Contains latex pleasewear gloves when handling if you have a latex allergy).Standing Test TubeWooden Stir StickFresh, Soft Fruit (e.g., Grapes, Strawberries, Banana, etc.) ScissorsDNA Extraction SolutionIce Cold EthanolYou Must ProvideContains sodium chloride,…...

Experiment a Diels-Alder reaction

Purpose: In this experiment a Diels-Alder reaction was used to form the products. Cyclopentadiene and maleic anhydride were reacted together to form cis-Norbornene-5,6-endo-dicarboxylic anhydride. 7-oxabicyclo{2.2.1}hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylic anhydride was also produced through a Diels-Alder reaction with the combination of furan and maleic anhydride. Equation: Procedure: Part 1 In a flask equipped with a septum side arm and topped with distillation heat and a thermometer add 2.5ml of mineral oil. Heat the oil. At the end of the distillation heat place an ice…...

Overview of Le Chatelier Principle for Science Class

This experiment entitled "Chemical Equilibrium" aims to help students to investigate the effects of concentration and temperature upon the position of equilibrium in a cobalt chloride solution, Co(H2O)62+. In this experiment, cobalt crystal is dissolved with distilled water and ethanol which the initial colour is purple-pinkish and a few drops of concentration of HCl is added to the test tube, the final colour is in deep blue colour. Upon the effect of concentration and temperature, the equilibrium will shift backward…...

Chemistry uncertainty conical flask

The conical flask was weighted with the balance and the value was recorded. 2) The beaker was filled with distilled water and the water was added into the conical flask up to the 60 mL mark. The dropper was used when water level was approaching the 60 mL mark. 3) The weight of the conical flask containing water was recorded. 4) The mass of water was found by subtracting the weight of conical flask from the weight of conical flask…...

To investigate the effect to the potato cells in the different solute concentration water

Water can move through the different cells due to the difference of water potentials in the cells. If there is a higher solute concentration in the cell than outside the cell, the water will move into the cell. However, if the concentration of inside the cell is lower than the outside, water will not move into the cell. This process is called osmosis. Research question; This investigation will determine how different concentrated sugar water will affect to the mass change…...

Recrystallization Lab

Recrystallization is a method used for cleansing solid organic substances. It is the most efficient approach to cleanse and remove impurities from a strong to allow a crystal to grow. The method is when the solute in a hot solvent yields to an option. Once the solvent cools, the service is saturated with regard to the solute, which is when it recrystallizes. A crystal is completion result of the method and it is a single pure substance with the impurities…...

The Importance of Chemistry in Daily Life

What does chemistry do to help us and how important is it? To go about answering these questions, we must find out where in our daily activities, chemistry is involved and how it benefits us. Without realising, chemistry is used in all part of our lives and some of its features are more recognised by specific user groups, for example a kid wouldn't be interested in how chemistry makes their fathers shaving foam more lubricant. I believe looking at the…...

The chemistry of shampoo

Everyone who uses shampoo could tell you that their main factors in choosing a shampoo to use are smell, look, and price. People are misinformed about shampoo and how to tell the difference between a good shampoo and a bad one. The main point of shampoo is to cleanse your skull of residue that is picked up either from hair products such as hair spray, gel or moose, as well as the dirt in the air, and perspiration. Shampoo is…...

Matter and its Properties

The fundamental building blocks of matter are atoms and molecules. These make up elements and compounds. An atom is the smallest unit of an element that maintains the properties of that element. And element is a pure substance made of only one kind of atom. A compound is the substance that is made from the atoms of two or more elements that are chemically bonded. Water is an example of a compound because it is one of many compounds that…...

Periodic Table of Alexandre-Emile Beguyer de Chancourtois

Alexandre Beguyer de Chancourtois (1820-1886). In 1863, a 44 year old French geologist, he created a list of the elements organized by increasing atomic weight. The list was twisted around a cylinder so that a number of sets of similar elements lined up, developing the first geometric representation of the regular law. In 1862 was the first individual to utilize atomic weights to reveal periodicity (i.e. when the components were organized according to their atomic weights, similar components seemed to…...

The Effects Of Caffeine On The Heart Rate Of Daphnia

This lab was designed to show how caffeine affected the heart rate of daphnia after exposing them to different concentrations of caffeine for ten minutes. Caffeine is a stimulant, which, in humans, causes heart rates and blood pressure to increase. Its effects range from mild alertness to heightened anxiety and body tension. We wanted to see if caffeine affected the daphnia's heart rate in the same way. We filled three containers with three different concentrations of caffeine. The first container…...

Planet Mercury

Our solar system consists of the sun and nine planets. Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. Mercury was named after the Roman God of Commerce and Thievery. It might have gotten its name because of the way it quickly appears and disappears from Earth's view. Mercury is the second smallest planet in the solar system; Pluto is the only planet that is smaller. Earth's diameter is about 7,200, while tiny Mercury has less than half of that size,…...

Acid Base Extraction of Organic compound

Acid-base extraction is the process of purifying of an organic acid and an organic base of an organic mixture. It is the procedure using sequential liquid-liquid extraction to purify the acid and the base from the mixture based on their chemical properties and solubility of the molecular and ionic forms. Acid- base extraction is commonly performed during the work-up of a chemical reaction. The acid-base extraction procedure can also be used to separate very-weak acids from stronger acids and very-weak…...

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