Chemistry Background Information Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 16 November 2017

Chemistry Background Information

When a person is exercising, or undergoing some sort of a strenuous activity, it has often been observed that they drink a lot of drinks. This maybe in the form of water, energy drinks, juice or it may even be carbonated sodas. Why is this so?? What Benefits do athletes get from drinking energy drinks?? How does fitness relate to energy drinks??

This answer lies in the basic chemical structure of energy drinks. These drinks consumed during exercising are much more complex than what they look like. They comprise of some vital nutrients which give the respective drinkers quick energy.

Energy Drinks

Energy drinks are drinks designed to increase stamina and improve physical performance. Some energy drinks are designed especially for elite athletes, but most are produced and marketed for the general community.

The main ingredients in energy drinks are caffeine, taurine and glucuronolactone. Some new drinks on the market also contain opium poppy seed extract or ephedrine.

Details of the ingredients present in some energy drinks:

Chlorine

Ions

pH

Glucose is the body’s preferred fuel. Energy drinks contain a ton of sugar which means, they contain a lot of energy. It’s a carbohydrate, and a lot of exercise regiments suggest a good dose of carbohydrates for workouts lasting more than an hour. However, to much sugar intake has been proved to cause diabetes.

Taurine is an amino acid that our body naturally produces. It helps regulate heartbeat, muscle contractions, and energy levels. Usually the body makes enough that supplements are not needed. It’s thought, but not proven, that under “stress conditions” like illness, physical exertion, or injury, the body does not create enough and supplements can help. Taurine might be a “mild inhibitory neurotransmitter”, some studies show it helps with excitable brain states, suggesting its addition to most energy drinks.

Ginseng, an adaptogenic herb, is known to increase energy, relieve stress and increase memory. However, it does contain some anti-fatigue components. Right now it’s suspected that ginseng helps stimulate the hypothalamic and pituitary glands, which then secrete something called adrenal corticotropic hormone. Ginseng is nothing that’s naturally created in the body, so having it in drinks certainly won’t hurt. 200mg/day is the standard dose, but one can safely take up to 2700mg.

Anti-oxidants help the body gracefully recover from the damage of free radicals. Vitamin C is the most common anti-oxidant. Energy drinks containing a lot of Vitamin C can be compared to a really fresh orange juice. Anti-oxidants help fend off illness and prevent cellular damage. Vitamins C, E, and Vitamin A, are all anti-oxidants.

Besides these common ingredients, energy drinks contain, sodium, magnesium and other ions. They are all a mixture of different chemicals performing their desired actions when it enters the human body.

Thus, in this research project, we decided to analyse energy drinks and perform different types of qualitative tests on these drinks; so as to verify whether or not what the labels on the drinks, say, are true. As a result, different drinks are to be tested qualitatively. At the end of the experiments, a much more general idea of energy drink contents would be seen.

In our research project, we will try to compare the qualitative contents of some energy drinks. These drinks will vary from international drinks to simple local energy drinks. To differentiate energy drinks form other drinks, such drinks can be compared to carbonate ones as well. We will be performing the following qualitative tests:

1) Test for Chloride Anion

2) Test for Reducing Sugars

3) Test for pH

4) Test for Electrolyte

Aim:

To test numerous energy drinks for some essential chemicals present, and validate its ingredients, as suggested by the manufacturers.

Apparatus:

To carry out these tests in a systematic order, a lot of materials are required. The list of the apparatus needed is given below:

* Test Tubes (3-4)

* Beakers

* Dropper

* Tripod Stand

* Bunsen Burner

* Distilled Water

* pH meter

* Connecting Wires

* Battery

* Mili-Ammeter

* Light Emitting Diode (LED)

*

* Benedict’s solution

* Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) solution

Variables:

There are not many variables in our experiment because of the fact that there is no quantitative data. All data to be tested is qualitative.

Independent Variable

Constant Variable

Dependent Variable

Chloride Anion:

Energy Drinks

Volume of Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) solution used

Presence of Chloride ions

Test for Reducing Sugars

Energy Drinks

Volume of Benedict’s solution used

Presence of Reducing Sugars

Test for pH

Energy Drinks

Volume of Drink

pH Value (Acidic or Basic)

Test for Electrolyte

Energy Drinks

Number of Batteries Connected

Conductivity of the energy drink

Manipulation of Variables:

Procedure/Method:

A lot of simple steps need to be carried out to achieve valid data. Since four different tests are being carried out, it would be better if the steps for each test ismentioned and followed separately.

Test for Chloride Anion:

Data Processing:

Conclusion and Evaluation:

Test for Reducing Sugar:

Place a small amount of the solution to be tested into a test-tube. Add an equal amount of Benedict’s reagent into the test-tube and place this test-tube into a water bath. If the solution turns dark yellow or brick red, it is safe to assume that reducing sugars are present in the solution that had been tested.

Test for Chloride Ion:

Place a small amount of the solution to be tested into a test-tube. Add a few drops of silver nitrate. If a cloudy white precipitate is formed in the solution, it means that the solution contains the chloride ion.

Test for the pH:

Place a small amount of the solution to be tested into a small beaker. Calibrate the pH meter by placing it into the calibrating solution, and then testing it my measuring the pH of water. After this, place the pH meter into the solution that needs to be tested and then record the reading that appears on the digital display.

Data Collection and Processing:

All the data collected during the course of the experiment is summarized below:

Pocari Sweat

POCARI SWEAT is a world renowned mild tasting, refreshing drink which replenishes body fluids lost through perspiration. It is arguably the most widespread energy drink.

Information received from: http://www.pocarisweat.com.ph/about.aspx

Picture taken from: http://iheartjapan.com/pictures/food/Pocari%20Sweat.jpg

Pocari Sweat

Electrolyte Test

Chloride Test

Test for Reducing Sugars

pH Test

Result

Positive

Positive

Positive

Acidic

Remarks

The solution contains electricity. It can conduct currents up to 20 mA.

A cloudy white precipitate was obtained. Chloride anions are present in the solution.

The final colour was that of reddish-brown. This suggests the presence of carbohydrates (glucose).

The pH was recorded as 3.6. This is an acidic solution.

Vita zone (orange)

Vita Zone (Orange), just like our previous drink is an energy drink produced in Indonesia This drink has an orange flavor. We have taken up these similar drinks (both are Vita Zone) as we wanted to compare the element of flavor on the drink’s chemical components. As a result, we would get a much better insight into the uses of such chemicals.

Picture Taken From: http://www.vitazone.com/assets/images/inner/var_orange.jpg

Vita Zone (Orange)

Electrolyte Test

Chloride Test

Test for Reducing Sugars

pH Test

Result

Positive

Positive

Positive

Acidic

Remarks

The solution contains electricity. It can conduct currents up to 45 mA.

A cloudy white precipitate was obtained. Chloride anions are present in the solution.

The final colour was that of reddish-brown. This suggests the presence of carbohydrates (glucose).

The pH was recorded as 3.4. This is an acidic solution.

Vita zone (Citrus)

Vita Zone (Citrus) is an energy drink produced in Indonesia. It is known for its different flavors which help attract athletes. However, the drink we are testing is Vita Zone (Citrus), which has a citrus (lemon) essence added to it.

Picture Taken From: http://www.vitazone.com/assets/images/inner/var_citrus.jpg

Vita Zone (Citrus)

Electrolyte Test

Chloride Test

Test for Reducing Sugars

pH Test

Result

Positive

Positive

Positive

Acidic

Remarks

The solution contains electricity. It can conduct currents up to 25 mA.

A cloudy white precipitate was obtained. Chloride anions are present in the solution.

The final colour was that of reddish-brown. This suggests the presence of carbohydrates (glucose).

The pH was recorded as 3.9. This is an acidic solution.

#Lemon Water

Lemon Water is an energy drink produced in Indonesia. It is known for its quantity of Vitamin C that it provides athletes. It has a total of 1000mg of Vitamin C added into the drink itself. This drink is lemon flavored.

Lemon Water

Electrolyte Test

Chloride Test

Test for Reducing Sugars

pH Test

Result

Positive

Positive

Positive

Acidic

Remarks

The solution contains electricity. However, it is a weak electrolyte as it can conduct currents only up to 4 mA.

A cloudy white precipitate was obtained. Chloride anions are present in the solution. Then, the colour changed directly to black; due to the presence of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C).

The final colour was that of reddish-brown. This suggests the presence of carbohydrates (glucose).

The pH was recorded as 3.6. This is an acidic solution.

#Orange Water

Orange Water is an energy drink produced in Indonesia. It is known for its quantity of Vitamin C that it provides athletes. It has a total of 1000mg of Vitamin C added into the drink itself. This drink is orange flavored.

Orange Water

Electrolyte Test

Chloride Test

Test for Reducing Sugars

pH Test

Result

Positive

Positive

Positive

Acidic

Remarks

The solution contains electricity. It can conduct currents up to 20 mA.

A cloudy white precipitate was obtained. Chloride anions are present in the solution. Then, the colour changed directly to black; due to the presence of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C).

The final colour was that of reddish-brown. This suggests the presence of carbohydrates (glucose).

The pH was recorded as 3.9. This is an acidic solution.

#UC 1000 (Lemon)

This drink is manufactured by the same company as our previous two drinks. As a result, it does have the 1000 mg of Vitamin C added to it. However, this drink is carbonated. It has a natural lemon essence added to it.

UC 1000 (Lemon)

Electrolyte Test

Chloride Test

Test for Reducing Sugars

pH Test

Result

Positive

Positive

Positive

Acidic

Remarks

The solution contains electricity. It is a mild electrolyte and can conduct currents up to 10 mA.

A cloudy white precipitate was obtained. Chloride anions are present in the solution. Then, the colour changed directly to black; due to the presence of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C).

The final colour was that of reddish-brown. This suggests the presence of carbohydrates (glucose).

The pH was recorded as 3.7. This is an acidic solution.

#UC 1000 (Orange)

This drink is manufactured by the same company as our previous two drinks. As a result, it does have the 1000 mg of Vitamin C added to it. However, this drink is carbonated. It has a natural orange essence added to it.

UC 1000 (Orange)

Electrolyte Test

Chloride Test

Test for Reducing Sugars

pH Test

Result

Positive

Positive

Positive

Acidic

Remarks

The solution contains electricity. It is a mild electrolyte and can conduct currents up to 10 mA.

A cloudy white precipitate was obtained. Chloride anions are present in the solution. Then, the colour changed directly to black; due to the presence of ascorbic acid (Vitamin C).

The final colour was that of reddish-brown. This suggests the presence of carbohydrates (glucose).

The pH was recorded as 3.7. This is an acidic solution.

Pepsi

#Pepsi (Blue)

To compare the contents of energy drinks and simple carbonated soft drinks, tests on Pepsi Blue, Coca Cola and Coca Cola Zero were carried out.

Pepsi Blue was launched in mid-2002 and discontinued in the United States in 2004, although it remains available in some other countries. Its berry flavor was the result of taste-testing over 100 flavors over a 9-month period. It is consumed by many teenagers and adults alike.

Information Taken From: http://www.absoluteastronomy.com/topics/Pepsi_Blue

Pepsi Blue

Electrolyte Test

Chloride Test

Test for Reducing Sugars

pH Test

Result

Positive

Negative

Positive

Acidic

Remarks

The solution contains electricity. It is a mild electrolyte and can conduct currents up to 8 mA.

Solution remained blue. Thus, there was no change in colour and no white precipitate. This suggests the absence of chloride ions.

The final colour was that of reddish-brown. This suggests the presence of carbohydrates (glucose).

The pH was recorded as 3.1. This is an acidic solution.

#Coca Cola

This is a carbonated beverage sold in more than 200 countries worldwide. It is arguably the most renowned drink in the world.

Coca Cola

Electrolyte Test

Chloride Test

Test for Reducing Sugars

pH Test

Result

Positive

Negative

Positive

Acidic

Remarks

The solution contains electricity. It is a mild electrolyte and can conduct currents up to 6 mA.

Solution remained black. Thus, there was no change in colour and no white precipitate. This suggests the absence of chloride ions.

The final colour was that of reddish-brown. This suggests the presence of carbohydrates (glucose).

The pH was recorded as 3.4. This is an acidic solution.

#Coca Cola (Zero)

This is a carbonated beverage sold in more than 200 countries worldwide. It is arguably the most renowned drink in the world. However, this version of Coca Cola has Zero Sugar in it, as it can be seen from the name. It is claimed that this drink contains no sugar at all.

Coca Cola (Zero)

Electrolyte Test

Chloride Test

Test for Reducing Sugars

pH Test

Result

Positive

Negative

Negative

Acidic

Remarks

The solution contains electricity. It is a weak electrolyte and can conduct currents up to 6 mA.

Solution remained black. Thus, there was no change in colour and no white precipitate. This suggests the absence of chloride ions.

The final colour was that of black. There was no significant colour change during the course of the experiment. As a result, reducing sugars are absent.

The pH was recorded as 3.5. This is an acidic solution.

#Red Bull

Red Bull is the most consumed energy drink in the world. It is adapted from a Thai energy drink and is widely known for its Taurine content. Athletes all over the world consume this very drink to give them a sudden boost of energy.

Red Bull

Electrolyte Test

Chloride Test

Test for Reducing Sugars

pH Test

Result

Positive

Negative

Positive

Acidic

Remarks

The solution contains electricity. It is an electrolyte and can conduct currents up to 17.5 mA.

Solution remained light brown in colour. Thus, there was no colour change and no white precipitate. This suggests the absence of chloride ions.

The final colour was that of reddish-brown. This suggests the presence of carbohydrates (glucose).

The pH was recorded as 3.5. This is an acidic solution.

Along with the routine tests carried out on this drink, a special ingredient was tested. Due to the unique smell of the drink, one can easily figure out the presence of esters in the drink. As a result, the test for Unsaturation was carried out.

Bromine Water Test: Negative

The colour of bromine water did not change. It did not decolorize and it can be concluded that Red Bull contains saturated esters.

#Hormoviton

Hormoviton is a drink associated in building up one’s stamina. It is consumed by males only to increase their endurance and stamina for different purposes. As a result, it can be included in the same category as energy drinks.

Hormoviton

Electrolyte Test

Chloride Test

Test for Reducing Sugars

pH Test

Result

Positive

Positive

Positive

Acidic

Remarks

The solution contains electricity. It is an electrolyte and can conduct currents up to 34 mA.

A cloudy white precipitate was obtained. Chloride anions are present in the solution.

The final colour was that of reddish-brown. This suggests the presence of carbohydrates (glucose).

The pH was recorded as 3.8. This is an acidic solution.

Conclusion and Evaluation:

Not enough is currently known about energy drinks and their effect on health and wellbeing. The producers of energy drinks make many claims about the health effects of their products. They say that their products can increase physical endurance, improve reaction time, boost mental alertness and concentration, increase overall wellbeing, stimulate metabolism, improve stamina and help eliminate waste from the body. The drinks are marketed as healthy, fun and youthful, and many children, young people and adults are taken in by the excitement created around them, believing these claims to be true. However, the evidence shows that it may be wise to be cautious in our consumption of energy drinks.

Caffeine, taurine and glucuronolactone occur naturally in the body, but the fact that they are present in much higher doses in energy drinks may be cause for concern. Scientists say that caffeine can have an effect on the growing brain and that it may cause a decline in the body’s immune system. For now, health authorities have determined that energy drinks are generally safe for consumption, with some cautions.

Evidence is beginning to emerge that energy drinks may be harmful to some members of our community. It may be best to avoid giving these drinks to children under the age of ten. With older children and young people, watch closely the amount of energy drinks they consume as well as any effects on their mood or behaviour. If you are unsure or would like further advice, consult your doctor or other health professional.

Free Chemistry Background Information Essay Sample

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  • University/College: University of Chicago

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Date: 16 November 2017

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