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Chemicals Industry Essay Examples

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Merseyside Company Case

Background and Problem Statement Diamond chemicals is a leading propylene producer and a major player in the chemicals industry worldwide. However the share of the company had fallen from £60 at the end of 1999 to £30 in 2000 on account of worldwide economic slowdown and poor financial performance. Given the prevalent scenario, it was time to obtain funds from corporate headquarters for a modernization program for Merseyside project. This project will not only renovate and rationalize a production line…...

Electrophilic Aromatic Substitution

The experiment focuses on finding out what kind of activating effects that four different substituents will have on an aromatic benzene ring. The substituents being tested are aniline, anisole, acetamide (acetanilide), and phenol. All four of these groups are either para or ortho activating. Bromination is the reaction that will be carried out. The melting point ranges of the final products will be taken in order to determine their identities and reactivity. It is predicted that substitution order from most…...

Osmosis and Diffusion

The basic principles of Osmosis and Diffusion were tested and examined in this lab. We examined the percent increase of mass and molarity of different concentrations of sucrose in the dialysis bag emerged in distilled water and the potato cores emerged in concentrations of sucrose. The data reinforces the principles of Osmosis and Diffusion, and in a biological context, we can simulate how water and particles move in and out of our own cells. Introduction Objective: 1. Investigate the process…...

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Handling a Sulphuric Acid Spill

There has been a spill of concentrated sulphuric acid at the chemical plant where I work at as the Safety Engineer. In this report, I will explain what Sulfuric Acid is, the health risks and hazards associated with it, the safety precautions that should be taken and how the spill should be handled. Sulfuric Acid, H2SO4, also commonly known as battery acid or vitriol, is one of the top products in the chemical industry, with 40 million tons produced annually…...

Analysis of Bhopal Gas Disaster

Bhopal Gas Disaster is known to be a catastrophic in the commercial world, an occurrence occurring at the Union Carbide plant located in Bhopal, India (Bhargava 1). The complex reverberations of such a common disaster continued to send out quivers through a company, a market, political and governmental leadership of a nation, and the lawful and policy instruments by which 2 countries India and the United States had actually previously sought to reimburse the victims of the tragedy (Jasanoff 1).…...

The Amount Of Calcium Carbonate In Toothpaste

Synopsis: The main aim of the experiment is to find out the amount of calcium carbonate in toothpaste through back titration since calcium carbonate does not dissolve in water. A roughly weighed amount of calcium carbonate is mixed with hydrochloric acid and then titrated against sodium hydroxide. When the indicator turns from pink to orange, the volume of sodium hydroxide used is taken down. After doing some calculations, the average percentage of calcium carbonate in toothpaste is 19.2%. This average…...

Aldol Reaction

In this preparative lab, an aldol (trans-p-anisalacetophenone) was produced from the reaction between p-anisaldehyde and acetophenone with the presence sodium hydroxide. The reaction also showed the importance of an enolate and the role it played in the mechanism. Sodium hydroxide acts as a catalyst in this experiment and is chosen because of its basic conditions and pH. The acetophenone carries an alpha hydrogen that has a pKa between 18 and 20. This alpha hydrogen is acidic because of its location…...

Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Introduction: The purpose of this experiment was to explore the properties of chemical substances that can be used to identify the types of bonds in a chemical substance using a laboratory procedure. The two types of bonds being identified were ionic and covalent. Based on a substance’s properties, how can you determine whether its bonds are ionic or covalent? This is the question I posed before starting the experiment. An ionic bond is a bond that results from the attraction…...

Perfumes and Scented Products

Introduction We thought and brainstormed about what we are going to do for our investigatory project. One of us gave the idea to concentrate on a particular topic, which is about soap making but after all the long thinking and brainstorming, we decided to come up with a perfume as a product with the use of rose petals. Perfumes and scented products are composed of toxic chemicals like acetone, toluene, ethyl acetate, formaldehyde and ethanol that are found on any…...

Victoria Chemicals in Chemicals Industry

Background Victoria Chemicals, a major player in the global chemical industry that supplies polypropylene, polymer that used to manufacture carpet fibers, packaging, automobile parts to the customers in Europe and the Middle East. Apart from numerous small producers, the company also receives the threats from the other seven major competitors. The company owns two plants in Europe, one being Merseyside Works, England and Rotterdam Facility, Holland. Both plants were built in 1967 and are identical in scale and design. James…...

Titration Of Acids And Bases

Introduction According to Arrhenius definition, acid is substance that produces H3O+ ion while base is substance that produces OH- ions. The reaction between acid and base often yields the products of salt and water. The formation of water in this neutralization reaction is caused by the combination of H3O+ and OH- ions. In order to determine the concentration of an unknown acid and base, a method called acid-base titration is used. The end of the titration has been reached when…...

Perkin Reaction

Introduction: The name of this reaction is called the Perkin’s reaction. The reaction was first used by William Perkin to create phenylcinnamic acids (Johnson). It is very similar to the aldol condensation which is followed by elimination. In this reaction E and Z isomers of phenylcinnamic acid are created using benzaldehyde and acetic anhydride. The intermediate product is acetic phenyl acetic anhydride. Benzaldehyde is an aromatic compound that Results: The reaction involves the use of benzaldehyde with acetic anhydride which…...

Aspirin Production

In the past, many people were suffering from headaches because the treatments have not existed. In that time the world suffered from heart attacks which caused many deaths because there were no preventions for heart attacks. Therefore, scientists worked on discovering new compounds and substances to cure and treat health problems. In 1870 professor Von Nicki showed that Salicin was converted into salicylic acid in the body. Then the salicylic acid was used for patients who were suffering from fever…...

Pharmaceutical Pediatric Formulations

Flavorants plays an important role in patient acceptability especially for pediatric oral liquid formulations. The selection of flavorants should be clearly described and justified as some flavorants has toxic effect especially in pediatric preparation. The safety concerns must be recognized including the risk of allergies and sensitization [2]. Peppermint oil Peppermint oil is important flavoring agent used different oral liquid preparation especially for pediatrics as it has favorable taste and odour for them. But, different unwanted effects such as atrial…...

Drug Analysis

Introduction Drugs are substances, natural or man-made, taken into the body that cause psychological or physical alteration to the consumer (Saferstein). However, most processed drugs look the same, either colourless or some other colour; this is where drug analysis comes in. Drug analysis is the process of using various methods to examine and investigate the components of a suspected substance (Saferstein). One of the methods used is Capillary Zone Electrophoresis/ time of flight Mass Spectrometry (CE-MS). In all fields of…...

Target Proteins

List of Objectives Discovery of Target Proteins of the prevalent pathogen involved in Gingivitis/periodontitis manifestation. Lead Libraries will be screened for Insilco discovery of the possible target protein (Gingivitis/periodontitis pathogen) binders/inhibitors. Discovery of possible interactions profile between leads and target protein for chronic Periodontitis/Gingivitis Red Complex pathogen/s. Genome scale metabolic pathway reconstruction and modelling Research Methodology  Discovery of Target Proteins of the prevalent pathogen involved in Gingivitis/periodontitis manifestation. Available Genome/proteome databases will be mined for the top prevalent enlisted pathogen…...

Importance of Pasteurisation

This chapter will explain the previous studies related to the mathematical methods used to determine temperature distribution in packaged foods using software for heat penetration studies. The understanding of theoretical aspects is important before progressing to the design and calculation process. It will focus on the background of the study, problem statement, methodology, result and conclusion that have been used in the previous researches. All these findings could be used to analyze the problems faced and develop temperature distribution mathematical…...

Schmidtea Mediterranea: Observations and Experiments

The strain used for these experiments is the asexual Schmidtea mediterranea. The animals were kept in a dark room with a constant temperature of 20В°C. Medium was prepared by adding 1.6mM NaCl, 1mM of CaCl2, 1mM of MgSO4.nH2O, 0.1mM of MgCl2.6H2O, 0.1mM of KCl and 1.2mM of NaHCO3 to Milli-Q water. The medium was changed every seven days, along with the feeding of the animals using veal liver. The worms were starved for 7 days before the experiments. Treatment with…...

Pests and Poisons in Agriculture

Pests are organisms that reduce the quality or yield of a crop. Many crop pests include aphids and caterpillars; however slugs and snails also cause a lot of damage. Pest control involves Biological, Chemical and Physical processes. Plants which are grown closely together may cause the rapid spread of fungal diseases and insect pests, from plant to plant, which soon affects large areas and causes heavy damage in a short period of time. It is important to control unwanted organisms,…...

Emerging Chemical Contaminants: The Case of Perfluorochemicals

In recent times, an emerging class of global contaminant, the perfluorochemicals (PFCs), has been the subject of immense worldwide investigation. PFCs are a class of organohalogens in which the compound is fully saturated with fluorines. The unique physical and chemical properties of PFCs are of value in industry and commerce. Since the 1950's sulfonated and carboxylated PFCs have been used in a wide variety industrial, commercial and consumer applications. Furthermore, these compounds are metabolically and photochemically inert, resisting both biotic…...

Risk Assessment Involving TPH

Risk assessment process of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons This paper presents data in a manner that is more like a summary rather than a complex risk assessment process of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH). This is indeed, a wide family of compounds, hence limiting the scope of the paper to undertake inclusive environmental, physical/chemical, and even health data on each and every hydrocarbon. Therefore, the paper acts as a guideline to understanding TPH, what is known about it, the probability of considerable…...

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