CHAPTER TWO2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW2.1 INTRODUCTIONThe chapter presents a review of the literature related to the study. Past studies are important as they guide the researcher on other studies done on the same topic. From this review, a conceptual framework using the dependent and the independent variables in the survey is developed, which lays a framework for the study. The chapter has four parts introduction, conceptual definitions, theoretical literature review, and this chapter ends with a summery.2.2 CONCEPTUAL DEFINITIONSAlthough there are instances of rigorous process thinking in manufacturing all the way back to the Arsenal in Venice in the 1450s.
When it comes to General motors in 19th century Henry Ford called flow production. Henry Ford is the first person to integrate the production system with the help of moving assembly lines. And his methods were called as Mass production. In 1930 just after the world war, II Toyota Motor Company invented the Toyota production system (TPS). Lean is derived from the Japanese concept Toyota Production System (TPS).
It is the Pull based manufacturing which was established in 1970s by Taichi Ohno and Shigeo Shingo at Toyota Motor Company. The principal idea is to exploit customer worthwhile reducing the non-value added activities. Simply, lean means forming more value for consumers with fewer resources. A lean organization appreciates customer value and focuses its key processes to continuously surge it. The ultimate goal is to provide perfect value to the customer through a perfect value creation process that has zero waste. The thought process of lean was thoroughly described in the book The Machine That Changed the World by James Womack, Daniel Jones, and Daniel Roos (1990).
In a subsequent volume, Lean Thinking by James Womack and Daniel Jones (1996) distilled these lean principles even further to five. Those are Specify the value desired by the customer, Identify the value stream for each product providing that value and challenge all of the wasted steps (generally nine out of ten) currently necessary to provide it, Make the product flow continuously through the remaining value-added steps, Introduce pull between all steps where continuous flow is possible and finally Manage toward perfection so that the number of steps and the amount of time and information needed to serve the customer continually falls.Lean in Textile and Clothing Industry of Sri Lanka Since the mid-2000s, export apparel manufacturers in Sri Lanka identified opportunities for them to turn to lean production for enlightening the effectiveness of manufacture organizations. Lean was first implemented as an improvement method at MAS Intimates Linea Clothing Pallekale in 2005. An only handful number of companies has implemented Lean in Sri Lanka. It can be seen that apart from the other organizations, many apparel organizations have taken lots of initiatives to implement Lean concepts in their organizations. As per their credentials, 5S that stands for Sort (Seiri), Simplify (Seiton), Shine (Seiso), Standardize (Seiketsu) and Sustain (Shitsuke),Value Stream Map (VSM), Takt time, One Piece Flow, Cellular manufacturing, Single Minute Exchange of dies (Changeover time), Kaizen and pull system are the most common tools utilized in the Sri Lankan context in their order of implementation. In the Sri Lankan context, it was understood that lean manufacturing is not a widely practiced tool yet in the Sri Lankan apparel industry through the topic is being widely discussed. Authors believe that it is due to the difficulty of adapting to the lean culture where a well-organized approach is essential.2.2.1 LEADERSHIP AND LEADERSHIP STYLEThe Lean leadership is most often called as a non-blaming culture. Lean leadership is a methodical system for the sustainable implementation and continuous improvement of Lean Production System. It describes the cooperation of employees and leaders in their mutual striving for perfection. This includes the customer focus of all processes as well as the long-term development of employees and leaders. In order to describe the lean leadership system comprehensively, various approaches of different authors have been analyzed and five basic principles could be derived.2.3 THEORETICAL LITERATURE REVIEWThe theories behind this research as mentioned below, but the theories are very large ounces here the researcher has given a brief description of it. 2.3.1 5S’S5S is a concept that has been developed in Japanese production environment. It is one of the concepts that enabled Just In Time manufacturing (JIT) and moved the production criteria in a new direction. Just In Time manufacturing (JIT) means the production criteria which begins after the order placement. It rejects the method of pre-production which is done before the order placement. This concept consists of five conditions. Those are Seiri, Seiton, Seiso, Seiketsu, and Shitsuke. They were converted into English as follows. Sort – Categorize everything properly Set in order – Everything should have a place Shine – Clean and inspect Standardize – Make and follow rules Sustain – Do as a habit2.3.2 QUICK CHANGE OVER (QCO)Quick Change Over is often called as Single Minute Exchange of Die (SMED). Quick Change Over is the method that reduces the operational lost such as efficiency lost, production lost, waste elimination in the current process and defect rate on the new process. Quick Changeover Continuous Improvements systematically reduce the downtime experienced when your process changes between variant types. The terms set-up and changeover are sometimes used interchangeably, however, this usage is incorrect. The set-up is only one component of the changeover. Changeover can be divided into the 3 Ups: Clean-up – the removal of previous product, materials and components from the line. Set-up – the process of actually converting the equipment. Start-up – the time spent fine-tuning the equipment after it has been restarted. 2.3.3 STANDARD WORKSHEET (STW)Standardized work is one of the most powerful but least used lean tools. Which is a paper-based document that shows the organizations best practices. Standardized work forms the baseline for kaizen or continuous improvement. As the standard is improved, the new standard becomes the baseline for further improvements, and so on. Improving standardized work is a never-ending process. Basically, standardized work consists of three elements: Takt time, which is the rate at which products must be made in a process to meet customer demand. The precise work sequence in which an operator performs tasks within takt time. The standard inventory, including units in machines, required to keep the process operating smoothly.Establishing standardized work relies on collecting and recording data on a few forms. These forms are used by engineers and front-line supervisors to design the process and by operators to make improvements in their own jobs. In this workshop, you’ll learn how to use these forms and why it will be difficult to make your lean implementations “stick” without standardized work.2.3.4 KAIZENKaizen is a Japanese word that means continuous improvement or the principles of continuous improvement. It is the process of measured and increased improvement while striving towards an exemplary business (Imai, 1997). Kaizen can be used to continuously search for waste and eliminate it thus achieving the main objective of lean thinking. The organization’s objectives are aligned towards meeting customers’ expectations. This ensures efficient and flexible compliance with the customer’s requirements as to product or service specifications. Kaizen, when implemented by organizations, tend to show improvement in its processes and activities (Wilcox & Morton, 2006). Chan (2005) urged companies to adopt kaizen to improve competitiveness and deal with the increased competition in the market, thereby satisfying customers. A Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle is a process-oriented approach according to Imai (1997). The plan refers to setting a target for improvement, do is implementing the plan, a check is the control for effective performance of the plan, and act refers to standardizing the improved process and setting targets for a new improvement cycle. There must be an effort to minimize the working processes to improve service flows and response times. Kaizen, when implemented in a continuous manner, was likely to lead to greater improvements in an organization (Elliff, 2004). Two kaizen approaches have been distinguished: Flow kaizen. Process kaizen. 2.3.5 PROBLEM-SOLVING The problem is defined in the Lean, as the variation of the current situation and standards. Problems are at the center of what many people do at work every day. Whether you are solving a problem for a client (internal or external), supporting those who are solving problems or discovering new problems to solve, the problems you face can be large or small, simple or complex, and easy or difficult. The process of working through details of a problem to reach a solution. Problem-solving may include mathematical or systematic operations and can be a gauge of an individual’s critical thinking skills. Follow the steps of the lean problem-solving process (PDCA) Know how to use different problem-solving methodologies in different circumstances (Problem Solving Flowchart, A3) Understand what it takes to develop concise problem-solving A3’s and or Problem Solving Flowcharts Understand and be able to explain the “thinking process” and infrastructure needed to sustain problem-solving at all levels. 2.4 CHAPTER SUMMARYThe summary of the chapter is the theories that are used in the research and its definition is a brief. The theories that discussed in this chapter 5S, Quick Change Over (QCO), Standard worksheet (STW), Kaizen and problem-solving. The conceptual framework that used in the research and the hypothesis in this chapter. This chapter includes the research gaps as well.
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