In this chapter presents the review of related literature and studies, the theoretical framework, conceptual frame work, and the definition of terms used. Related Literature Malunggay The “malunggay” in the Philippines, is “saji” in Indian Subcontinent is a popular tree. Many Asians use the leaves of Malunggay (Sajina) like spinach and also the fruits it produces as a vegetable, like asparagus. Both the leaves and the fruits are very nutritious, which contains many vitamins like Vitamin C and other minerals.
For centuries, people in India, Philippines, Malaysia, and Thailand have been eating these leaves as a part of their food (Pati, 2008).
While it grows best in dry sandy soil, it tolerates poor soil, including coastal areas. It is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree that is native to the southern foothills of the Himalayas in northwestern India. Today it is widely cultivated in the Philippines. It is considered one of the world’s most useful trees, as almost every part of the Moringa tree can be used for food or has some other beneficial property.
In the tropics, it is used as forage for livestock, and in many countries, on the other hand Moringa micronutrient liquid, a natural anthelmintic (kills parasites) and adjuvant (to aid or enhance another drug) is use as a metabolic conditioner to aid endemic diseases in developing countries (Pati, 2008). Meanwhile, malunggay grows wildly in hot tropical climate and is a wonderful herb known all over the world. It may provide the boost in energy, nutrition and health you’ve been seeking.
There are 13 different species of malunggay plant and the best known species and the most wildly cultivated is the malunggay a species native to the Philippines. Malunggay fruits can be added to dinengdeng, drum stick stew, or just simply saute it. The flowers can be cooked in coconut milk oil extracted from flower can be used as illuminant, ointment base, and absorbent in the effleurage process of extracting volatile oils from flowers.
The oil, applied locally, has also been helpful for arthritic pains, rheumatic and gouty joints (Pati, 2008). Malunggay is a fast-growing, drought-resistant tree. It also increase lactation in nursing mothers and address the problem of malnutrition. And is also an obligatory ingredient in chicken tinola (soup) (Salazar, 2007). There are more health benefits. Vivencio Mamaril 2001, of Bureau of Plant Industry, told a national daily that in India, malunggay is used in treating various ailments. Read about test for presence of protein in food
A 2001 study in India has found that the fresh root of the young tree can be used to treat a fever. Because of its nutritional content, malunggay strengthens the immune system, restores skin condition, controls blood pressure, relieves headaches and migraines, manages the sugar level thereby preventing diabetes, reduces inflammations and arthritis pains, restricts the growth of tumors, and heals ulcers. Cashew Nut
Cashew nuts a richly sweet product of the cashew tree, have gained popularity in North America and Europe not only for their succulent flavor but for health benefits, too. Whether roasted, salted, sugared or covered in chocolate, the cashew nut, often used as a flavorful complement to appetizers, main dishes and desserts, packs a mix of nutrients and minerals not found in many common foods. Cashew nuts is also known by the botanical name Anacardium occidentale, the cashew is a close relative of mangos, pistachios, poison ivy and poison oak. Meyers, 2003) Cashew nuts tree’s leaves and bark as well as the popular cashew apple posses herbal health benefits that includes that killing bacteria and germs, stopping diarrhea, drying secretion, increasing the libido, and reducing fever, blood sugar, blood pressure and body temperature. The cashew nut, a popular treat found on grocery and health food store shelves across the world, is a jam-packed with nutritional content. esearch It packs 5grams of protein per ounce and high levels of the essential minerals iron, magnesium, phosphorus, zinc, copper and manganese, which are utilized in holistic health solutions and healthy diets. Cashew nuts also have a fatty acid profile that contributes to good health through phytosterols, tocopherols, and sqaulene, all of which lower the risk of heart disease, combined with the nuts zero percent cholesterol content. Even with relatively high fat content, cashew nuts are considered to be a “low-fat” nut.
In fact, cashew nuts contain less fat per serving than many other food stores, including almonds, walnuts, peanuts and pecans. (Meyers, 2003) Pesto Sauce The origins of pesto are somehow uncertain but some historical letters found in the archives of Genoa (Liguria) mention a dressing called literally battered garlic already in the 1600. This unique dressing that recently has conquered the tables of many dining rooms all over the world is closely related to the image of Liguria and Genoa.
Nevertheless in the past it was very common for the Genovese families to keep a small moringa plant on the balcony. (Masino, 2008) On the other hand Masino said that the health benefits of pesto come from its nutrient-dense ingredients. Although high in fat, pesto gets fats from olive oil and walnuts, which are both high in healthy unsaturated fats. Wall nuts are nutrients dense and, along with the Malunggay, make pesto a good source of many nutrients, including vitamins A, vitamins E, vitamins K and many minerals.
Homemade pesto ensures you are getting all the nutrition of fresh ingredients. Read labels of store bought pesto carefully. Look for olive oil, Malunggay, wall nuts and cheese high in the list of ingredient and choose sauces that minimize additional ingredients like preservatives and fillers. Salt is an optional ingredient in a classic pesto (it’s tasty enough without it) but watch out for high sodium levels in packaged pesto sauces. Other ingredients to avoid are hydrogenated oils, monosodium glutamate and artificial colors. (Masino, 2008) Olive Oil
Extra virgin olive oil is the highest quality and most expensive olive oil. It should have no defects and flavor of fresh olive. In chemical terms extra virgin olive oil is described as having a free acidity, expressed as oleic acid. In order for an oil to qualify as an extra virgin olive oil must also pass both an official chemical test in a laboratory and a sensory evaluation by a trained tasting panel recognized by the International Olive Council. The olive oil must be found to be free from defects while exhibiting some fruitiness.
Since extra virgin olive oil is simply pressed fruit juice without additives, the factors influencing its quality and taste include the varieties of olives used, the terroir and the countless decisions, production practices and the dedication of the producer. (Lindh, 2008) The most commonly used and heard of olive oil is extra virgin. Extra virgin, along with the standard virgin olive oil, is extracted directly from the olive fruit by grinding the olives in thermal conditions which preserves the natural taste.
The method for extracting the oil is what is known as “cold pressed,” which keeps the oil from losing its flavor that can be lost when exposed to high temperatures. Extra virgin olive oil is produced naturally, meaning that the oil is not made from any sort of chemical treatments. Virgin oil is also an indication that the oil is not refined, that they are of a higher quality and retain their natural flavor. (Fayed, 2007) Olive oil is the major edible vegetable oil of the Mediterranean countries.
Olive oil is obtained by milling and pressing the fruits of the cultivated olive tree, which was domesticated approximately 6,000 years ago in the east Mediterranean area. By late Roman times the olive cultivation and the techniques of olive oil production had spread to all parts of the Mediterranean basin, but did not expand, except in parts of Spain and North Africa (Grigg 2001). Parmesan Cheese Parmesan cheese adds a nutty, salty flavor to dishes such as spaghetti, pizza and salads. It is produced by many different countries, including the United States, but the most famous version is Parmigiano-Reggiano, which is made in Italy.
It is primarily used as a grating cheese because it has a granular texture, but it melts easily and made with cow’s milk. One of the factors that make Parmesan so super is the ease with which the human digestive system can assimilate all this goodness. Due to its long ageing, much of the protein in Parmesan has been broken down into peptones, peptides and free amino acids, in effect the protein has been pre-digested, the protein is readily available and as such it puts very little strain on the metabolism.
Parmesan contains 33% protein compared to 20% in lean beef and that animal protein takes 4 hours to digest while the protein in Parmesan takes just 45 minutes. Other benefits to the digestion include Parmesan’s ability to promote the development of Bacillus Bifidus, which is useful for the maintenance of a healthy gut, and also the fact that there is no lactose present ,good news for the lactose intolerant or those with gastro-intestinal inflammation. (Cespedes, 2010) Related Studies Malunggay According to Marilyn Sta.
Catalina malunggay leaves were separated from the stalk and were either oven dried or sun dried. They call these dried leaves as “ malunggay tee”. The pounded dried leaves of malunggay leaves of malunggay on the other hand are tuned into “moringa powder” which can be mixed into common Filipino delicacies such as soup, sauce, instant noodles, polvoron, cooking, and chocolates as an added ingredient. Furthermore, children who are not very fond of vegetables get ingest essential nutrients present in malunggay without knowing it.
She added that malunggay gives a felling of wellness and at the same time balances sugar and cholesterol content in the body and leaves can be prescribed to treat anemia. Dubbed as miracle vegetables on the power gulay, malunggay is now being processed as food fortificant, food supplement and evev potent medicine. ( Sta. Catalina, 2001 ) A Review of the Medical Evidence for its Nutritional, Therapeutic, and Prophylactic Properties that Malunggay, or the horseradish tree, is a pan-tropical species that is known by such regional names as benzolive, , drumstick tree, kelor, marango, mlonge, mulangay.
Over the past two decades, many reports have appeared in mainstream scientific journals describing its nutritional and medicinal properties. Its utility as a non-food product has also been extensively described, but will not be discussed herein. As with many reports of the nutritional or medicinal value of a natural product, there are an alarming number of purveyors of healthful food who are now promoting malunggay as a panacea, while much of this recent enthusiasm indeed appears to be justified, it is critical to separate rigorous scientific evidence from anecdote.
Those who charge a premium for products containing malunggay must be held to a high standard. Those who promote the cultivation and use of malunggay in regions where hope is in short supply must be provided with the best available evidence, so as not to raise false hopes and to encourage the most fruitful use of scarce research capital. It is the purpose of this series of brief reviews to critically evaluate the published scientific evidence on malunggay, highlight claims from the traditional and tribal medicinal lore and from non- peer reviewed sources hat would benefit from further, rigorous scientific evaluation and suggest directions for future clinical research that could be carried out by local investigators in developing regions and also Malunggay is the most widely cultivated species of monogeneric family the Moringaceae, that is native to the sub- Himalayan tracts of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Afghanistan. This rapidly- growing tree was utilized by the ancient Romans, Greeks and Egyptians; it is now widely cultivated and has become naturalized in many locations in the tropics.
It is a perennial softwood tree with the timber of low quality, but which for centuries has been advocated for tradition al medicinal and industrial uses. It is already an important crop in India, Ethiopia, the Philippines and the Sudan, and is being grown in West, East and South Africa, tropical Asia, Latin America, the Carribean, Florida and the Pacific Islands. All parts of the Malunggay tree are edible and have long been consumed by humans.
According to Fuglie the many uses for Malunggay include; alley cropping (biomass production), animal forage (leaves and treated seed-cake), biogas (from leaves), domestic cleaning agent (crushed leaves) and water purification (powdered seeds. (Fahey, 2003) Furthermore Fahey said that malunggay seed oil also known uses as Ben oil, is a sweet non-sticking, non-drying oil that resists rancidity. It has been used in salads.
In the West, one of the best known uses for malunggay is the use of powdered seeds to flocculate contaminants and purify drinking water, but the seeds are also eaten green, roasted, powdered and stepped for tea or used in curries. This trees has in recent time been advocated an outstanding indigenous source of highly digestible protein, Ca, Fe Vitamin C, and carotenoids suitable for utilizing in many of the so- called “developing” regions of the world where undernourishment is a major concern.
Malunggay tree have been used to combat malnutrition, especially among infants and nursing mothers. Three non government organization in particular- Trees for Life, Church World Service and Educational Concerns for the tropics. ” Leaves can be eaten fresh, cooked, or stored as dried powder for many months without refrigeration, and reportedly without loss of nutritional value. Moringa is especially promising as a foods sourcein the tropics because the tree in full leaf at the end of the dry season when other foods are typically scarce.
A large number of reports on the nutritional qualities of Malunggay now exist in both the scientific and the popular literature. (Fahey, 2003) Cashew Nut On a global scale, Senegal is not a major player, but its strategic location in West Africa places it firmly within the global chain for raw nut exports. Moreover, cashew is becoming increasingly important to the Senegalese economy. Production levels all over West Africa have been increasing markedly, and Senegal is no exception.
More importantly, Senegal production is highly concentrated in the Casamances area to the south of The Gambia. In this area, with a population just under one million, cashew as a cash crop has become the single largest source of income for the majority of farmers from the Kolda to Ziguinchor regions within the last five years. This despite the fact that there has been little coordinated government intervention. It appears as though cashew cultivation has emerged largely through market encouragement and the ease with which the smallholder peasant can cultivate the crop.
This is also reflected in the seemingly chaotic and lazy nature of cashew cultivation in the Casamance, compared to other countries such as Tanzania where there are effective and coordinated governments programs to improve farming techniques and quality of production. In these countries, cashew has been cultivated over a longer period of time, and concerted efforts undertaken by their governments have assisted in improving quality and quantity of national production over the last decade.
In Senegal, where cashew cultivation is still a new phenomenon, farmers often fill a given field haphazardly, employ little or no pest control and have applied little or no selection of seed for quality far from employing studied techniques for cultivation. As will be argued further in this paper, with the emergence of a local processing industry, and a government increasingly aware of the importance of cashew to economic development, these demands appear set to change.
This is mostly because local kernel processors demand more specific quality than Indian exporters, who also process the nut for products other than kernels and therefore do not insist as much on nut size and weight. (Cadju, 2011). Theoretical Framework Malunggay is a wonderful tree all over the world. Referred by scientist malunggay is a “miracle tree” and also Malunggay has been promoted by the world Health Organization (WHO) for the past 20 years as a low-cost health enhancer in poor countries around the globe.
This chapter presents the review of related literature and studies, the concept and conceptual model of the study, and the definition of terms used. INPUT PROCESS OUTPUT
Figure 1 In this paradigm shows the raw materials used and procedure in making malunggay pesto sauce. Definition of Terms For clarity of presentation, the following terms are hereby defined as used in this Study: Aerobic Plate Count. A frequently performed microbiological count. It is the number of bacteria growing on a non-specific solid bacteriological growth medium under the specified conditions. In this study, it is used as a parameter to determine the microbiological quality of the pesto sauce. Cashew Nuts. A tropical American evergreen tree widely cultivated for its edible nut-like kernels.
A kidney shaped nut edible only for roasting. In this study, it is used as a parameter to determine the microbiological quality of the pesto sauce. Escherichia Coli. Is a Gram-negative, Rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the lover intestine of warm-blooded organisims. In this study, it is used as a parameter to determine the microbiological quality of the pesto sauce. Malunggay. Is the most widely cultivated species of the genus Moringa, which is the only genus in the family moringacease. It is an exceptionally nutritious vegetable tree with a variety of potential uses.
The tree itself is rather a with drooping branch that’s grow to approximately 10 m in height. In this study it is used as the main ingredients in making pesto sauce. Microbiological Analysis. The science that deals with microorganism involved in the spoilage, contamination, and preservation of food. In this study, it refers to the procedure used to detect the presence microorganism in the pesto sauce. Olive Oil. Is a type of oil that obtained from the olive, a traditional tree crop of the Mediterranean Basin. It is commonly used in cooking.
In this study it is used as the main ingredients in making pesto sauce. Parmesan Cheese. Is a type of cheese that ironic hard cheese and Parmesan is a part of Italian national cuisine and is usually grated. In this study it is used as the main ingredients in making pesto sauce. Pesto. A sauce typically served with pasta; contains crushed basil leaves and garlic and pine nuts and Parmesan cheese in olive oil. It refers to the product, the researcher’s product. Salmonella. is a type of bacteria with a rod-shaped, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming, predominantly motile enterobacteria with diameters around 0. to 1. 5 µm, lengths from 2 to 5 µm, and flagella which grade in all direction. In this study, it is used as a parameter to determine the microbiological quality of the pesto sauce. Staphylococcus Aureus. Is a type of bacteria with a “golden grape-cluster berry,” and also known as “golden staph” and Oro staphira) is a facultative anaerobicGram-positive coccal bacterium. S. aureus is the most common species of staphylococci to cause Staphinfections. In this study, it is used as a parameter to determine the microbiological