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Chapter 4 Focus Questions Essay

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1. How did the Glorious Revolution shape relations between England and its North American colonies? During the Glorious Revolution, King James II was overthrown and replaced with his daughter, Mary, and her husband, William. This change showed the power of the elected representatives over the monarch. The colonies of North America believed this was how it should be, and pretty much the Glorious Revolution confirmed the colonists’ beliefs that there should be limited monarch power, and a strong representative government. The English Bill of Rights that followed the Glorious Revolution also had massive influence on the colonies.

2. What factors contributed most significantly to the growth and prosperity of the British mainland colonies? Some factors that contributed to the prosperity of British colonies were the dethroning of King James II, mercantilism, population growth, and expansion. The crowning of William and Mary opened up a new era for the colonists. William dismantled the Dominion of New England and brought back self-governing colonies rather than crown appointed governors.

Mercantilism helped further develop England’s economy. Mercantilism maximized sales while minimizing foreign purchase.

The colonies wouldn’t purchase things from other nations but they would encourage other nations to buy from them. Mercantilism became the commercial economy of England. The income produced from mercantilism enhanced commerce. All the colonies had a population growth, not from immigration but from natural increase. In the early 1700s, England expanded many of their colonies like Delaware. England also spread their empire south to Georgia. Georgia became a refugee for debtors to work off their debts.

3. What factors explain the relative strengths of the British, French, and Spanish empires in North America? Some factors that explain the relative strengths of the British, French, and Spanish empires are relationships with the Indians, production of goods, trade, populations, and slaves. The British, French, and Spanish had made alliances with several Indian tribes. They were able to trade items with them and they were able to provide each other with a military ally.

The production of goods and crops also helped strengthen some colonies. The British especially had success with producing and exporting crops. England, France, and Spain traded with the natives and other countries. A big part of England’s success was the population of the colonies. Spain and France never had a lot of people migrate to their colonies which made them rely on relationships with the Indian’s. England’s overpopulation was good and sometimes difficult for them. Slaves were a huge part of the success with producing goods. Slaves were the predominant source of labor in North American colonies.

4. What were the most significant results of the Enlightenment and Great Awakening in English colonies? The Great Awakening brought about more personal relationships between man and God. In the past, it was believed that you couldn’t pray directly to God without going through a clergyman or church official. People were put in charge of their own fates. Many of the greatest minds of the Enlightenment tried to help colonists break free from English rule.

The Enlightenment emphasized the equality of men and natural rights. These movements, especially the Enlightenment, helped colonists realize that they were being ruled by an unjust government. This would lead to the colonists seeking independence from England.

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