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chapter 25 vocab apush Essay

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Jane Addams
1860-1935. Founder of Settlement House Movement. First American Woman to earn Nobel Peace Prize in 1931 as president of Women’s Intenational League for Peace and Freedom.

Florence Kelly
Active in the settlement house movement and led progressive labor reforms for women and children.

Emma Lazarus
Granddaughter of German Jews; wrote “The New Colossus”; wanted immigrants to come to America; glad to accept them and welcome them into the country

Mary Baker Eddy
Founded the Church of Christian Scientists and set forth the basic doctrine of Christian Science.

Walter Rauschenbusch
New York clergyman who preached the social gospel, worked to alleviate poverty, and worked to make peace between employers and labor unions.

Dwight Lyman Moody
This man, part of the social gospel movement, proclaimed the gospel of kindnessand forgiveness and adapted the old-time religion to the facts of city life and founded an institute in 1889

Louis Agassiz
Louis Agassiz was a professor at Harvard College. He was a student of biology who insisted on original research.

He hated the overemphasis on memory work. Agassiz was one of the most influential American scientists in the nineteenth century and the first to gain international recognition since Benjamin Franklin.

James Gibbons
leader of the Church in the U.S. who most forcefully took on the causes of workers

Booker T. Washington
…, African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.

W. E. B. Du Bois
Fought for African American rights. Helped to found Niagra Movement in 1905 to fight for and establish equal rights. This movement later led to the establishment of the NAACP

George Washington Carver
African American farmer and food scientist. His research improved farming in the South by developing new products using peanuts.

Charles W. Elliot
Harvard University,He was the president of Harvard University, and started the policy of offering elective classes in addition to the required classes.

Edwin L. Godkin
This man published the New York Nation, which championed various forms of civil service reform

William James
1842-1910; Field: functionalism; Contributions: studied how humans use perception to function in our environment; Studies: Pragmatism, The Meaning of Truth

William Randolph Hearst
A leading newspaperman of his times, he ran The New York Journal and helped create and propagate “yellow (sensationalist) journalism.”

Jospeh Pulitzer
he raised circulation of “new yourk world” and brought drama to journalism

Edward Bellamy
In 1888, he wrote Looking Backward, 2000-1887, a description of a utopian society in the year 2000.

Henry George
He wrote Progress and Poverty in 1879, which made him famous as an opponent of the evils of modern capitalism.

Lewis Wallace
He wrote Ben Hur: A Tale of the Christ. It was published in 1880. He was a Civil War soldier, lawyer, and author seeking to combat Darwinian skepticism of the time. He was against Darwinism.

Horatio Alger
Popular novelist during the Industrial Revolution who wrote “rags to riches” books praising the values of hard work

Mark Twain
…, United States writer and humorist best known for his novels about Tom Sawyer and Huckleberry Finn (1835-1910)

William Dean Howells
A leading late nineteenth-century literary realist and influential critic, his works described both the genteel, middle-class world he knew and the whole range of metropolitan life (considered prolems industrialization and unequal wealth. “Silas Lapham,” his masterpiece, dealt with the ethical conflicts inherent in a competitive society.

Stephen Crane
“The Open Boat”

Henry James
American writer who lived in England. Wrote numerous novels around the theme of the conflict between American innocence and European sophistication/corruption, with an emphasis on the psychological motivations of the characters. Famous for his novel Washington Square and his short story “The Turn of the Screw.”

Charolette Perkins Gilman
Women’s rights advocated and feminist writer, said women should be more involved in politics bc they are working now. Wrote “Women and Economics.”

Carrie Chapman Catt
(1859-1947) A suffragette who was president of the National Women’s Suffrage Association, and founder of the International Woman Suffrage Alliance. Instrumental in obtaining passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920.

Ida B. Wells
African American journalist. published statistics about lynching, urged African Americans to protest by refusing to ride streetcards or shop in white owned stores

Anthony Comstock
United States reformer who led moral crusades against art and literature that he considered obscene (1844-1915)

Emily Dickinson
“Because I could not stop for Death”

Henry Adams
Well-connected and socially prominent historian who feared modern trends and sought relief in the beauty and culture of the past

Jack London
A young California writer and adventurer who portrayed the conflict between nature and civilization in his novels.

Paul Laurence Dunbar
1st African American to make a living off his writing, Author of “We Wear the Mask,” “Douglas” and “Slow through the Dark”

Daniel Burnham
CHICAGO, began 1906. A leading architect and city planner, produced a magnificent plan for redesigning Chicago

Henry H. Richardson
born in Louisiana and educated at Harvard and Paris; architect, distinctive, ornamental style; style called Richardsonian; high vaulted arches; Marshall Fields in Chicago

Louis Sullican
mind behind Urbanization

Augustus Saint-Gaudens
He was the only known American sculptor of this period. His sculptures were usually large and robust.

Thomas Eakins
: was a painter, photographer, sculptor, and fine arts educator. He was one of the greatest American painters of his time, an innovating teacher, and an uncompromising realist

James Whistler
(1834-1903) A member of the realist movement, although his works were often moody and eccentric. Best known for his Arrangement in Black and Grey, No.1, also known asWhistler’s Mother.

Theodore Dreiser
American naturalist who wrote The Financier and The Titan. Like Riis, he helped reveal the poor conditions people in the slums faced and influenced reforms.

Victoria Woodhull
Shook the pillars of conventional morality when she publicly proclaimed her belief in free love in 1871. She was a divorcee, sometime stockbroker, and a tireless feminist propagandist.

Carrie Nation
Founded WCTU to outlaw selling/drinking alcohol. She was married to an abusive man that she killed with an axe and she didn’t get punished for it. She formed a group that walked into bars with axes.

John L. Sullivan
influential editor of the Democratic Review who coined the phrase “manifest destiny” in 1845.

James Naismith
United States educator (born in Canada) who invented the game of basketball (1861-1939)

Phineas T. Barnum
an American showman who is best remembered for his entertaining hoaxes and for founding the circus

William F. Cody
was an American soldier, bison hunter and showman. He was born in the Iowa Territory (now the American state of Iowa), near Le Claire. He was one of the most colorful figures of the Old West, and mostly famous for the shows he organized with cowboy themes. Buffalo Bill received the Medal of Honor

An extensive concentration of urbanized settlement formed by a coalescence of several metropolitan areas. The term is commonly applied to the urbanized northeastern seaboard of the U.S. extending from Boston, MA to Washington, D.C.

“Form Follows Function”
the famous dictum of Louis Henry Sullivan which became the slogan of modern architecture.

Dumbbell Tenement
Houses that poor people lived in, located in cities Showed some atrocities of American industrial life.

Settlement House
A center in an underprivileged area that provides community services

New Immigration
The second major wave of immigration to the U.S.; betwen 1865-1910, 25 million new immigrants arrived. Unlike earlier immigration, which had come primarily from Western and Northern Europe, the New Immigrants came mostly from Southern and Eastern Europe, fleeing persecution and poverty. Language barriers and cultural differences produced mistrust by Americans.

“America Letters”
Letters from immigrants in the United States to friends and relatives in the old country, which spurred further immigration.

“Birds of Passage”
immigrants who arrived between 1820-1900 who evetually returned to their country of origin

Social Gospel
A movement in the late 1800s / early 1900s which emphasized charity and social responsibility as a means of salvation.

Liberal Protestantism
Go to church but don’t necessarily believe in miracles or truth in history of biblical stories.-God of Judgment…sins are mistakes.

A Protestant Christian movement emphasizing the literal truth of the Bible and opposing religious modernism, which sought to reconcile religion and science. It was especially strong in the Baptist Church and the Church of Christ, first organized in 1906.

(philosophy) the philosophical theory that some ideas are innate

(biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms

Natural Selection
A process in which individuals that have certain inherited traits tend to survive and reproduce at higher rates than other individuals because of those traits.

Normal Schools
Training programs for teachers in elementary and secondary schools. In Chaminade’s time, few teacher training schools existed because the concept of formal preparation for teachers was novel.

A distinctive American philosophy that emerged in the late nineteenth century around the theory that the true value of an idea lay in its ability to solve problems. The pragmatists thus embraced the provisional, uncertain nature of experimental knowledge. Among the most well-known purveyors of pragmatism were John Dewey, Oliver Wendell Holmes, Jr., and William James.

Talented Tenth
According to W. E. B. DuBois, the ten percent of the black population that had the talent to bring respect and equality to all blacks

Land-grant Colleges
state educational institutions built with the benefit of federally donated lands

Yellow Journalism
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers

Dime Novels
Cheaply bound and widely circulated novels that became popular after the Civil War depicting such scenarios from the “Wild West” and other American tales.

Literary Realism
literature reflecting real life, rather, than imaginary or idealistic life.

Single Tax
Concept of taxing only landowners as a remedy for poverty, promulgated by Henry George in Progress and Poverty (1879).

New Morality
came forth during the 1920s, turning people away from traditional values. Glorified weath and personal freedom.

Macy’s/Marshall Field’s
Department stores invented the concept of browsing. Before DS people only bought things that they needed but now they found themselves buying things that they didnt know that they “needed.” They also led to the development of chain stores, which has previously not existed. Furthermore, stores like Sears would send out mail catalogs. These allowed for people in rural areas and the West to have the latest fashions and products previously unavailable. All of these new innovations brought variety to the consumer. Everyone could buy the same things, not depending on things like race, gender, and social status.

Sears/Montgomery Ward
Sears and Roebuck created the mass consumer market store and mail order catalog Sears, Roebuck and Company in 1886. Their main competitor, Montgomery Ward, had originated the sale of farming products through mail order in 1872, but was surpassed by Sears in 1900.

Little Poland/Little Italy
Between 1860 and 1880, 68,500 Italians moved to New York. By 1920, 391,000 Italians lived in the city. Hometown loyalties divided Little Italy into regionally-specific neighborhoods. The Northern Italians settled along Bleeker Street while the Geonese claimed Baxter Street. Those from Western Sicily grouped themselves together along Elizabeth Street.

Hebrew Schools
In 1882, Ben-Yehuda taught in a Hebrew school to exemplify the policies.the necessity of using Hebrew in the school, because, for the first time, children from several different Jewish communities would be studying in the same classroom, and they had no other common language which could be used.

Hull House
Settlement home designed as a welfare agency for needy families. It provided social and educational opportunities for working class people in the neighborhood as well as improving some of the conditions caused by poverty.

National Consumers League
formed in the 1890’s under the leadership of Florence Kelly, attempted to mobilize the power of women as consumers to force retailers and manufacturing to improve wages and working conditions.

Henry Street Settlement
1st public health nursing practice staffed by both nurses and social workers. (Due to Lillian Wald)

The Origin of Species
1859: Charles Darwin’s book explained how various species evolve over time and only those with advantages can survive and reproduce

American Protective Association
An organization created by nativists in 1887 that campaigned for laws to restrict immigration

Salvation Army
a charitable and religious organization to evangelize and to care for the poor and homeless

Christian Science
A Christian sect founded by Mary Baker Eddy in the 19th century. They believe that sickness and sin are not ordained by God and can be overcome by praying; hence they are known for refusing to accept medicine or treatment by doctors.

Young Men’s Christian Association/Young Women’s Christian Association
YMCA, came from England in the 1850’s and grew rapidly, to respond to human needs, devoting themselves to community service and care of the unfortunate, they had facilities for social programs, gyms, libraries, etc. It developed due to the social problems of the crowded cities

Chautauqua Movement
One of the first adult education programs. Started in 1874 as a summer training program for Sunday School teachers, it developed into a travelling lecture series and adult summer school which traversed the country providing religious and secular education though lectures and classes.

Tuskegee Institute
Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper

Naitonal Association for the Advancement of Colored People
Founded in 1910, this civil rights organization brought lawsuits against discriminatory practices and published The Crisis, a journal that called on African-Americans to “close ranks” and enlist in the army, to help “make our own America a real land of free.” and was edited by African-American scholar W. E. B. Du Bois.

Howard University
Howard University, at Washington, D.C.; coeducational; with federal support. It was founded in 1867 by Gen. Oliver O. Howard of the Freedmen’s Bureau, to provide education for newly emancipated slaves

John Hopkins University
Founded in Baltimore in 1876 as first American institution to specialize in advanced graduate studies.

Morrill Act
(1862) Federal law that gave land to western states to build agricultural and engineering colleges.

Principles of Psychology
1890, considered to be the first modern psychology textbook by William James

The Nation
Founded in 1910, this civil rights organization brought lawsuits again discriminatory practices and published The Crisis, a journal edited by W.E.B. Du Bois.

Atlantic Monthly
a newspaper written by Henry Demarest Lloyd

Progress and Poverty
Written by Henry George, critical of entreprenuers, after studying poverty in America, determined that rich didn’t pay fair share of taxes and proposed “Single Tax” on incremental value of land

Looking Backward
book written by edward bellamy; described experience of a young bostonian who slept in 1887 and woke up in 2000 to find the social order changed, large trusts that had grown grew and combined to create one big one that would distribute the wealth among everyone and eliminate class divisions-called it nationalism

Ben Hur
fictional story, made into a popular movie in 1959, of a Jewish man who is condemned to work until death by the Romans, but he survives. His story is paralleled with that of Jesus.

The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn
He was thinking about his wife and his children, away up yonder, and he was low and homesick; because he hadn’t ever been away from home before in his life; and I do believe he cared just as much for his people as white folks does for their’n. It don’t seem natural, but I reckon it’s so.

The Red Badge of Courage
a naive young man (Henry Fleming) matures as a result of fighting in the Civil War

The Education of Henry Adams
The autobiography of a member of the presidential Adams family of New England. Adams mingles a partial story of his life with an indictment of his educations and reflections on the fundamental ideas of modern time and of the Middle Ages.

Lyrics of a Lowly Life
(Paul Laurence) Dunbar

Sister Carrie
Theodore Dreiser’s novel; single woman who moved to city and worked in shoe factory but then turned to prostitution due to poverty

Comstock Law
Federal law promoted by a self-appointed morality crusader and used to prosecute moral and sexual dissidents

Women and Economics
Charlotte Perkins Gilman’s book urging women to enter the work force and advocating cooperative kitchens and child care centers

Women’s Christian Temperance Union
This women’s union called for the national prohibition of alcohol. Led by Frances E. Willard and Carrie A. Nation

American Red Cross
Clara Barton worked with wounded soldiers and later founded the

Anti-Saloon League
Founded in 1895, the league spearheaded the prohibition movement during the Progressive Era.

“City Beautiful” Movement
Movement in environmental design that drew directly from the beaux arts school. Architects from this movement strove to impart order on hectic, industrial centers by creating urban spaces that conveyed a sense of morality and civic pride, which many feared was absent from the frenzied new industrial world.

World’s Columbian Exposition
1893; World’s Fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus’s arrival in the New World

style of Romanesque Revival architecture named after architect Henry Hobson Richardson, whose masterpiece is Trinity Church, Boston

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