Chapter 25 vocab APUSH

Jane Adams
Established Hull House. Condemned war as well as poverty.

Florence Kelley
A lifelong battler for the welfare of women, children, blacks, and consumers. Served as a general secretary of the National Consumers League. Led the women of Hull House into a successful lobby in 1893 for an Illinois antisweatshop law that protected women workers and prohibited child labor. A leader in women’s activism and social reform.

Mary Baker Eddy
She founded the Church of Christ (Christian Science) in 1879. Preached that the true practice of Christianity heals sickness. (No need for a doctor, if have enough faith can heal self). Wrote a widely purchased book, “Science and Health with a key to the Scriptures”.

Charles Darwin
An English Naturalists who wrote the Origin of the Species in 1859. His theory stated that in nature the strongest of a species survive, the weaker animals died out leaving only the stronger of the species. Through this process of natural selection the entire species improved.

Booker T. Washington
An ex-slave who saved his money to buy himself an education. He believed that blacks must first gain economic equality before they gain social equality. He was President of the Tuskegee Institute and he was a part of the Atlanta Compromise. He believed that blacks should be taught useful skills so that whites would see them as useful.

W.E.B. Du Bois
Helped to form the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) in 1910.

William James
a philosopher on Harvard faculty, wrote Principles of Psychology, The Will of to Believe, Varieties of Religious Experience, and Pragmatism; 1842-1910: Helped to express philosophy of the nation.

Henry George
He was a journalist-author and an original thinker. he saw poverty at its worst in India and wrote the classic Progress and Poverty. this book in 1879 broke into the best-seller lists. he believed that the pressure of a growing population with a fixed supply of land pushed up property values.

Horatio Alger
a popular writer of the Post-Civil War time period. He was a Puritan New Englander who wrote more than a hundred volumes of juvenile fiction during his career; the famous “rags to riches” theme.

Mark Twain
He was America’s most popular author, but also renowned platform lecturer. He lived from 1835 to 1910. Used “romantic” type literature with comedy to entertain his audiences. In 1873 along with the help of Charles Dudley Warner he wrote The Gilded Age. This is why the time period is called the “Gilded Age”. The greatest contribution he made to American literature was the way he captured the frontier realism and humor through the dialect his characters use.

Charlotte Perkins Gilman
A major feminist prophet during the late 19th and early 20th century. She published “Women and Economics” which called on women to abandon their dependent status and contribute more to the community through the economy. She created centralized nurseries and kitchens to help get women into the work force.

Carrie Chapman Catt
She was a leader of the women’s suffrage movement. She was not successful in accomplishing her goal, but she did spark a movement that would eventually lead to women’s right to vote.

Cardinal James Gibbons
popular with Roman Catholics and Protestants, as he preached American unity.

Dwight L. Moody
This man, part of the social gospel movement, proclaimed the gospel of kindnessand forgiveness and adapted the old-time religion to the facts of city life and founded an institute in 1889

Megalopolis
cities in America that began to grow rapidly in the post Civil War decades. In 1860, no city in the US had a million people. By 1890, Chicago, New York, and Philadelphia had passed the million mark.

settlement house
a house where immigrants came to live upon entering the U.S. At these plaves, instruction was given in English and how to get a job, among other things. The first one was the Hull House, which was opened by Jane Addams in Chicago in 1889. These centers were usually run by educated middle class women. They became centers for reform in the women’s and labor movements.

nativism
a philosophy in which you hate immigrants and have much patriotism

evolution
change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms

pragmatism
Written by William James and this states that everything has a purpose.

yellow journalism
Joseph Pulitzer and William Randolph Hearst were kwon as the lurid yellow press . Strong trumpeted the superiority of Anglo-Saxon civilization and summoned Americas to spread their religion and their values to the backward people. They were opposite then the View of virile Americans like Theodore Roosevelt and congressman Henry Cabot Lodge were interpreting Darwinism.

New Immigration
Between the 1850’s and 1880’s, more than 5 million immigrants cascaded into America from the “mother continent.” Starting in the 1880’s, the “new immigrants” (mainly Italians, Croats, Slovaks, Greeks, and Poles) came swarming into the USA. This influx of different nationalities caused problems at first, because they all spoke different languages and practiced different religions. They later; however, helped provide the unique cultural diversity that still exists today in the USA.

social gospel
preached by many people in the 1880s and said that due to the social environment poor people sometimes could not help their situation. This caused some churches to get involved in helping the poor, but some disagreed and didn’t think that they should be helped because it was their fault.

Hull House
Offered instruction in English, counseling to help immigrants deal with American big-city life, childcare services for working mothers, and cultural activities for neighborhood residents.

American Protective Association
Antiforeigner organization created in 1887 that urged to vote against Roman Catholic candidates for office.

salvation army
this welfare organization came to the us from england in 1880 and sought to provide food, shelter, and employment to the urban poor while preaching temperance and morality.

Chautauqua movement
helped benefit adults in education. This movement was launched in 1874 on the shores of Lake Chautauqua, in New York. The organizers achieved success through nationwide public lectures, often held in tents and featuring well-known speakers, including Mark Twain. In addition, there were extensive Chautauqua courses of home study, for which 100,000 persons enrolled in 1892 alone. This movement contributed to the development of American faith in formal education.

Morrill Act
Passed after the Southern states had seceded, provided a generous grant of the public lands to the states for support of education.

Comstock Law
censored “immoral” material from the public.

Women’s Christian Temperance Union
organized in 1874 and the white ribbon was the symbol of purity; led by Frances E. Willlard; the league was for prohibition; 1919 the 18th Amendment was passed for national prohibition-was only a temporary solution

Eighteenth Amendment
did away with all Liquor, making it illegal.

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