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Chapter 12 T&Q’s

Renaissance
The humanistic revival of classical art, architecture, literature, and learning that originated after a rapid eruption commercial activity in Italy in the 14th century and later spread throughout Europe. The period of this revival, roughly the 14th through the 16th century, marking the transition from medieval to modern times. Merchants and nobles were selling and making art of all types which enlightened the cites its beauty. The Renaissance was an exalted time of individualism. More famous artists, for example, Leonardo Da Vinci came out of this time frame. This is also the transition from the dark ages into the golden ages, a time of life improvement. A very significant part in the Renaissance was the aspect of virtu, or virtue. This was the idea that human beings, or man, had god-given powers. Many people throughout this time has tried to show that they had virtu, which overall improved the society they lived in.

Patronage
the support given by a patron; money and support that is given to an artist, organization, etc. During the Renaissance, the patronage was given to the artists by kings, popes, nobles and the very wealthy merchants that enjoyed the art proved to them. This was very important to the economy doing this time because the money, or “commission”, given was used to make the cities more beautiful, that way the city would attract more people to come to it. Mostly, this commission was technically given back into the city’s economy. Most of the commissions were for religious reasons. One of the most famous patrons was Lorenzo de’ Medici, the Magnificent, whom Machiavelli called “the greatest patron of literature and art that any prince has ever been.” One of the artists employed by the Medici was Botticelli, a member of Lorenzo’s circle of poets and scholars. Botticelli’s subjects, both mythological and religious, are imbued with lyricism and mystery.

Communes
When the Italian City-States were on the rise, they weren’t really cities, but were groups of men who had been freed from their obligations, these are known as communes. These made it very difficult for feudalism to exist in Italy. These communes were established by merchant-guilds, regulated trade, the civil order was kept, higher taxes, and by maintaining the city walls. Although, these communes were easily overthrown, usually the Popolo due to their qualifications for leading the cities.

Popolo
This was a name that the common people were known as during the Renaissance. Throughout the 13th C. they would take violent actions and use weapons to try and take over the governments that ran the city. These groups were very highly taxed and they weren’t very powerful. Their reign was short lived because the nobility that were in the cities took the government back over.

Condottieri
The merchant oligarchies brought in powerful military to keep order in the cities, these were known as Condottieri. The merchants made their own armies, in which case took political control over the city by faking a noble lineage. These armies would take over the current government once the other had been removed.

Signori
When the Condottieri were in control, it would eventually lead to a Signori, and signori is a ruling style in when one man, a signor, in in charge. This type of government was used throughout Italy and was very popular.

Courts
Courts are magnificent households and palaces where signori and other rulers lived, conducted business, and supported the arts. In the largest courts many thousands of individuals comprised the court, many officials or servants in the permanent employ of the ruler, and others attending in hope of political or financial gain, or merely for the society and entertainments offered. These courts were opportunities for the Signori and Oligarchs to put on display their wealth and their amount of power. Various ceremonies, such as birth, funerals, marriages, etc.. anything that had to deal with family connections, had to be done or held in the courts themselves. These courts also greeted visiting Nobles or Signori with huge elaborate parades that were very expensive.

Lorenzo de Medeci
Lorenzo de’ Medici was an Italian statesman and de facto ruler of the Florentine Republic, as a patron of artists, writers, and humanists. He lived from January 1, 1449, up to April 9, 1492. During his reign, the city saw a rebirth of the arts and scholarship that is known as the Renaissance. He was one of the most famous patrons that existed in that time, he was considered “the greatest patron of literature and art that any prince has ever been.” One of the artists employed by the Medici was Botticelli, a member of Lorenzo’s circle of poets and scholars. Botticelli’s subjects, both mythological and religious, are imbued with lyricism and mystery. He was the patron of scholars, painters, and sculptors: Ficino, Pico della Mirandola, Angelo Poliziano, Verrocchio, Ghirlandaio, the Pollaiuoli brothers, Botticelli, da Vinci, and Michelangelo. His patronage outshone the work of his father and grandfather who had been illustrious in their own times.

Girolamo Savonarola
Girolamo Savonarola was an Italian Dominican friar and preacher active in Renaissance Florence. He was known for his prophecies of civic glory, the destruction of secular art and culture, and his calls for Christian renewal. Savonarola is famous for burning books, and for the destruction of what he considered immoral art. He was later burned at the stake because the city of Florence had turned against him. He had disobeyed the Pope Alexander VI and that led to his excommunication.

Humanism
Leonardo Bruni came up with this term, it is an intellectual movement based on the study of the classics, rewarded interest in man and new view of human kind, civic humanism: application of meanest education to civil service. The goal for humanism was supposedly create a society that was proficient enough to speak and write well, and enable the public to engage in their lives in the cities, and to help encourage the others to make notable and good decisions. This was achieved through the study of “studia humanities” or also called humanities. What these are, for example, subjects like history, grammar, poetry, etc.. Humanism was designed to revive classical relics. There were very many centers for humanism, such as Florence and Venice.

Francesco Petrarch
Francesco Petrarca, commonly anglicized as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar and poet in Renaissance Italy, and one of the earliest humanists. He lived from July 20, 1304 to July 19, 1374. Petrarch’s rediscovery of Cicero’s letters is often credited for initiating the 14th-century Renaissance. He was known as the father of humanism. Some of his main influencers were Cicero, Virgil, Augustine of Hippo, and Ovid. His writings directly helped shape what is now known as the modern Italian language. Petrarch is also credited with the development of Italian sonnets, now known as Petrarchan sonnets.

Cicero
Marcus Tullius Cicero was a Roman philosopher, politician, lawyer, orator, political theorist, consul, and constitutionalist.He lived from January 3, 106 BC and assassinated on December 7, 43 BC. He is also widely considered Rome’s greatest orator and verse writer. Greek philosophy and rhetoric moved fully into Latin for the first time in the speeches, letters and dialogues of Cicero, the greatest orator of the late Roman Republic. Cicero was one of the leading political figures of the era of Julius Caesar, Pompey, Marc Antony and Octavian.

Leonardo Bruni
He was the first person to come up with the term ‘humanism’. Leonardo Bruni was an Italian humanist, historian and statesman, often recognized as the most important humanist historian of the early Renaissance. He lived from 1370 to March 9, 1444. He has been called the first modern historian. Bruni was secretary to the papal chancery from 1405 and served as chancellor of Florence from 1427 until his death in 1444.

Pico della Mirandola: “On the Dignity of Man”
Oration on the Dignity of Man is neither a proclamation of the worth and glory of worldly life and achievement nor an attack on the medieval worldview as such. Pico was a man of his time, and he was willing to defend the medieval theologians and philosophers from the attacks of his humanist friends. However, in his statement he does go beyond what was then the traditional view of human nature. Pico was a scholar whose erudition included a familiarity not only with Italian, Latin, and Greek but also with Hebrew, Chaldean, and Arabic. He had read widely in several non-Christian traditions of philosophy, and he had concluded that all philosophy, whether written by Christians, Jews, or pagans, was in basic agreement. The philosophical first part of the Oration on the Dignity of Man begins by praising human beings.

Leonardo Da Vinci
Leonardo was one of the most famous artists to come out of the Renaissance. Leonardo, was an Italian polymath whose areas of interest included invention, painting, sculpting, architecture, science, music. He not only painted famous paintings such as, The Last Supper or The Mona Lisa, but invented technology that was way ahead of the time. He was known as a ‘Renaissance Man’.

Thomas More: “Utopia”
Thomas More, a social philosopher, christian humanist, english lawyer, and author. Utopia’s purpose was to mock the way society was living their lives. He aimed it towards the political and religious leaders of the time. He was trying to get people thinking about the government who was ruling at the time, to inform the reader of the Utopian mindset, the belief that everyone in society does their part, that everyone was equal. It was written in 1515, the time of the Renaissance of Europe, right after it had come out of the dark ages.

Baldassarre Castiglione: “The Courtier”
Baldassare Castiglione, count of Casatico, was an Italian courtier, diplomat, soldier and a prominent Renaissance author, who is probably most famous for his authorship of The Book of the Courtier. This work, which portrays the ideal courtier, was a chief vehicle in spreading Italian humanism into England and France. His ideal courtier must be, he says, nobly born, with a pleasant disposition, wit, and “a comely shape of person and countenance.” The conversation turns to language, a burning issue in the Renaissance, when the vernaculars are struggling with Latin for supremacy. The count recommends that the courtier avoid using antiquated or unfamiliar words and that he take his vocabulary from those familiar Italian words “that have some grace in pronunciation.”

Niccolò Machiavelli: “The Prince”
Niccolò di Bernardo dei Machiavelli was an Italian Renaissance historian, politician, diplomat, philosopher, humanist, and writer. He has often been called the founder of modern political science.s most famous for a short political treatise, The Prince, written in 1513 but not published until 1532, five years after his death. Although he privately circulated The Prince among friends, the only theoretical work to be printed in his lifetime was The Art of War, about military science. Machiavelli composed The Prince as a practical guide for ruling (though some scholars argue that the book was intended as a satire and essentially a guide on how not to rule). The book was dedicated to Lorenzo de’ Medici, the ruler of Florence

Cesare Borgia
Cesare Borgia, Duke of Valentinois, was an Italian condottiero, nobleman, politician, and cardinal, whose fight for power was a major inspiration for The Prince by Machiavelli. He was born September 13, 1475 and died March 12, 1507. He was born at Rome while his father was cardinal, and on the latter’s elevation to the papacy he was created archbishop of Valencia, and a year later cardinal. Cesare was Alexander’s favorite son, and it was for him that the pope’s notorious nepotism was most extensively practiced.

Pope Alexander VI
Pope Alexander VI, born Roderic Borgia, was Pope from 11 August 1492 until his death. He is one of the most controversial of the Renaissance popes, partly because he acknowledged fathering several children by his mistresses. was pope from 1492 to 1503. Because of his worldly life, he is often considered the most notorious of the Renaissance popes. He was a corrupt, worldly, and ambitious pope, whose neglect of the spiritual inheritance of the church contributed to the development of the Protestant Reformation.

Christian Humanism
Christian Humanism was a Renaissance movement that combined a revived interest in the nature of humanity with the Christian faith. It impacted art, changed the focus of religious scholarship, shaped personal spirituality, and helped encourage the Protestant Reformation. It is the belief that human freedom, individual conscience, and rational inquiry are not only compatible with Christianity, they are fundamental to a proper understanding and interpretation of Christian belief.

Desiderius Erasmus: “The Praise of Folly”
The Praise of Folly is an essay written in Latin in 1509 by Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam and first printed in 1511. is a short work, commonly understood to be divided into three different sections. It is narrated by Folly herself; she stands before a crowd of listeners wearing the costume of a fool and announces her intention that she plans to extol her own virtues and merits. In this first section, Folly explains how, without her, marriages and childbirth would not exist. Old age is mitigated by her presence. Indeed, all relationships on earth need folly and flattery to proceed harmoniously. Folly explains that self-love is not a bad thing; rather, one must like himself to accomplish anything of merit. In the second section, Folly moves to criticize various academic and social classes. She begins with lawyers and doctors and then moves to philosophers, gamblers, hunters, superstitious folk, authors of books, poets, businessmen, grammarians, men obsessed with their lineage and ancestry, artists and performers, and even nations and cities themselves. n the third section, Folly leaves behind her procession of foolish men and turns to the idea of the Christian fool. The scriptures esteem ignorance and simplicity and decry false wisdom and adherence to the ways of the world.

Johann Gutenberg: “The Printing Press, Gutenberg’s Bible”
Johannes Gensfleisch zur Laden zum Gutenberg was a German blacksmith, goldsmith, printer, and publisher who introduced printing to Europe. Long before the invention of Gutenberg’s printing press the Chinese used wooden block printing, ink, and movable clay type. Furthermore, when developing the printing press Gutenberg combined features of existing technologies such as textile, papermaking and winepresses. The printing press is considered one of the most significant inventions of the Middle Ages because, like nothing before, it enabled the fast flow of information and lead to the spread of new ideas. Once it became possible to reproduce text very quickly, books could be read by many more people. This meant that people who were previously illiterate now had motivation to learn how to read, which lead to a more educated and inquisitive population. Between 1450 and 1455, the Gutenberg Bible was completed. Early documentation states that a total of 200 copies were scheduled to be printed on rag cotton linen paper, and 30 copies on velum animal skin. It is not known exactly how many copies were actually printed.

Pope Julius II
Pope Julius II, nicknamed “The Fearsome Pope” and “The Warrior Pope”, born Giuliano della Rovere, was Pope from 1 November 1503 to his death in 1513. He was the greatest art patron of the papal line and one of the most powerful rulers of his age. Although he led military efforts to prevent French domination of Italy, Julius is most important for his close friendship with Michelangelo and for his patronage of other artists. He commissioned Michelangelo’s “Moses” and paintings in the Sistine Chapel and Raphael’s frescoes in the Vatican.

Michelangelo: “Sistine Chapel, David”
Michelangelo di Lodovico Buonarroti Simoni was an Italian sculptor, painter, architect, poet, and engineer of the High Renaissance who exerted an unparalleled influence on the development of Western art. His most famous works are in the Sistine Chapel and The sculpture of David. The art in the Sistine Chapel is considered one of the cornerstone works in the high Renaissance art. Michelangelo began to work on the frescoes for Pope Julius II in 1508, replacing a blue ceiling dotted with stars. Originally, the pope asked Michelangelo to paint the ceiling with a geometric ornament, and place the twelve apostles in spandrels around the decoration. Michelangelo proposed instead to paint the Old Testament scenes now found on the vault, divided by the fictive architecture that he uses to organize the composition. His astonishing Renaissance sculpture was created between 1501 and 1504. It is a 14.0 ft marble statue depicting the Biblical hero David, represented as a standing male nude. Originally commissioned by the Opera del Duomo for the Cathedral of Florence, it was meant to be one of a series of large statues to be positioned in the niches of the cathedral’s tribunes

Jan Van Eyck
Jan van Eyck was an Early Netherlandish painter active in Bruges and one of the most significant Northern Renaissance artists of the 15th century. Little is known of his early life. He was alive for the Dutch and Flemish Renaissance painting, Renaissance. He is often credited as the first master, or even the inventor of oil painting, but in fact he did not invent the certain technique. All of the known works of Jan Van Eyck are from the period within his service to Philip of Burgundy. He was a learned man who spoke Latin, he was also well versed in the classics. The artist remained as well respected member of the court of Burgundy until his death in 1441.

Albrecht Duhrer
Albrecht Dürer was a painter, printmaker and theorist of the German Renaissance. Born in Nuremberg, Dürer established his reputation and influence across Europe when he was still in his twenties, due to his high-quality woodcut prints. He was regarded as the greatest German Renaissance artist. His work includes altarpieces, portraits and self-portraits, engravings, and woodcuts.

Titian
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio, known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno. He was not the great architect or sculptor like Michelangelo, or the inventor and scientist that was Leonardo’s gift, he was just a painter, but a painter who fully utilized colour in his work. Titian’s style did alter throughout his long life but his interest in colour never diminished. His use of paint and brushwork made him the foremost painter in Venice and his execution of both landscapes and portraits brought him great fame in his own lifetime.

Mannerism
Mannerism is a style in European art that emerged in the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520, lasting until about 1580 in Italy, when the Baroque style began to replace it. Northern Mannerism continued into the early 17th century. Mannerism originated as a reaction to the harmonious classicism and the idealized naturalism of High Renaissance art as practiced by Leonardo, Michelangelo, and Raphael in the first two decades of the 16th century. In the portrayal of the human nude, the standards of formal complexity had been set by Michelangelo, but it was Raphael that really made the normal of idealized beauty.

Queen Elizabeth I
Elizabeth I was Queen of England and Ireland from 17 November 1558 until her death. Sometimes called The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, the childless Elizabeth was the fifth and last monarch of the Tudor dynasty. Elizabeth was a successful monarch, helping steady the nation even after inheriting an enormous national debt from her sister Mary. Her achievements, however, were greatly magnified after her death. She was depicted in later years as a great defender of Protestantism in Europe. In reality, however, she often wavered before coming to the aid of her Protestant allies

Conversos
One of the Spanish Jews who adopted the Christian religion after a severe persecution in the late 14th and early 15th centuries and the expulsion of religious Jews from Spain in the 1490s. In the minds of many Roman Catholic churchmen the conversos were still identified as Jews, partly because they remained within the Jewish communities in the cities and partly because their occupations (merchants, doctors, tailors) had been monopolized by the Spanish Jewish people.

Explain why the Italian City states struggled to maintain power.
Most of the Italian City states were ruled by either the communes, the popolo, the Condottieri, the Signori, or the nobles that were already in the city. The governments of the City states were very weak and could be taken over very easily. While in doing so, the City States weren’t very stable politically, and that means that the change was constant. The laws were ever changing, and consistency and maturity of laws were not present. So when one government would take over, the people from another government would soon enough end their reign power.

Assess the relative importance of political, economic, and social factors as causes of the Italian Renaissance
Political: There were multiple forms of government during the time of the renaissance, that means that political leaders and government were ever-changing, there wasn’t unity throughout Italy itself. The social classes had a huge impact on the political influence that some people had. The richer you were, the more political power you had in the government. For example, due to the the rising commercial industry in Italy, merchants became very wealthy and started to rise though the classes because they had more money, so therefor they became the social elite. Yet they were still under the nobility, their influence played a great part in the political factors of the Renaissance.
Economic: During this time, the economic environment was very stable. More and more people were being commissioned for the work they were doing, so that meant that they had more money to give back into the economy. Like in the political stance of things, the more money you had, the more power. Money was power back then, as it still is today. Politics had more of an influence in the renaissance, you could have all the money in the world and have great power, but if you were a religious or political leader, you could influence those who had the money.
Social: If i could describe the Renaissance in one word it would be: individualism. It was every man for himself attitude. Artists now realized that they had different ways to paint art, it was no longer a religious tie back, they could be free and paint what they wanted. Individualism was more important than the church. Again, if you were in a political standpoint, you influenced those who were making and selling the art.

Evaluate to what degree the word renaissance is an appropriate label for Italian history from 1450-1550.
Renaissance means “rebirth”, which is the perfect word for this time of transition. It was not only a rebirth of culture, and art, but in the relationship with the church. The renaissance was doing the golden age, which was a time of improvement because they had just come out of the dark ages where there was death and turmoil. Culture and art during the Renassiance went into extremes, artists started turning away from doing art for the church and started doing more for more individual buyers and for themselves, again the whole theme of individualism. Since the artists where becoming the rich merchants they were rising to power, that meant that they were turned away from the church so their political influence was turned away from the church. This was to a very high degree.

Analyze the impact of Renaissance humanism on the development of Italian art from 1450 to 1550. Discuss at least two artistic works specifically
In the Renaissance the main ideas of humanism came from the people opposing the ideas of the bible and of the Christian church. Many humanists decided to look back at what the ancient Greeks and romans had already worked on as that usually provided a better of the world. The statue of David by Michelangelo shows the human form alone, unadorned and without other people or objects. The ceiling of the Sistine Chapel, painted by Michelangelo, shows the artist’s appreciation of the human form, especially in the depiction of Adam, who is painted nude. The statue shows humanism in the sculpture due the rationality that is depicted by David’s stance and facial expression. David represents humanist ideal of a man who can become a hero by his intelligence and will power. Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel painting represents humanism in the way it glorified the beauty and oder in nature, while older medieval paintings contained only ever and temptation. They thought of humans as equals of god, and Michelangelo was in love with the idea of human power

To what extent are secularism, individualism, and humanism reflected in the ideals of the Renaissance?
Those are the three words that represent the renaissance itself. Most of the art was due to the idea of humanism, the way that people had seen that human power was just as good as God’s power. Individualism has turned a lot of people away from the church because they wanted to focus on themselves and their own artwork. Secularism was more focused on the material art rather than the religious aspect of it. When someone cares more about themselves and what their art or what they do in their free time starts to lessen the power of the church, because before the Renaissance, the church had most of the power, but now it was power to the individual.

Analyze the debate about women during the Renaissance and how it reflected trends in political life, education and social roles.
During the Renaissance, there were more people that were trying to support the idea of men and woman were somewhat equal. Most people viewed woman as a secondary status, their place was the home and to have families, cook, clean, take care of the children, but during this time, more and more people got behind the idea of having woman be more active in the community. Woman had hardly any place in the government, they could be wealthy, but most thought their opinion was worthless. With the few exceptions of Queen Elizabeth during this time.

Describe and analyze how monarchs in the following countries during the Renaissance used religion and the military to centralize power.
a. France
b. England
c. Spain
France: Francis I used religion to centralize power by making all of the churches follow the rules of the higher church, meaning all of the smaller churches are to be under the rule of the one major church. He used the military to centralize power by controlling militias in smaller towns and having the citizens of all the towns have faith in the French military, implementing a sense of security associated with the French government. England: Queen Elizabeth I used religion to centralize having the lower churches report up to the high church, again putting them below the major church, this way they had no control over what they did or what they taught. She used military by making militias report up to the country’s army, in this way holding command over them and making them rely on the bigger force. Spain: King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella centralized power through the church by exiling the Jewish and Muslim people and applying Spanish inquisition to the people. Through military, power was by forcefully removing the militias so that the Spanish army was the only force to be able to defend citizens, therefor inspiring loyalty throughout the country.

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