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As Human Development Has Grown

Chapter 1INTRODUCTION

Background of Study

Urbanization has been recognised as the major reason contribute to the increase of peak discharge runoff. (New Comer,2014) As human development has grown, between 30% – 50% of undeveloped area transferred to develop area. (Lambih,2001)

Conventional development of undeveloped sites are often causes land to be covered with large amount of impervious area. This increasingly surface water run off volume and peak flows that may leads flash flood during rainfall events storm water is results from precipitation that flow across natural or unnatural surface area.

The flows can accumulates pollutants such as oil, grease, chemicals, nutrients, metal, bacteria and other precipitates.

Therefore, to control flash flood and pollutants substances can implement thirsty landscaping approach. Thirsty landscaping is approach that concern about the environment and social factor of the human activity in the terms of design and planning for storm water system. The function is to manage the storm water that mimic the natural drainage.

Terminology Definition

In this studies, there are several term that have been used.

The description and definitions of each keyword is as follow.

1.2.1 Resilience

In a scope of urban context, resilience can be defined as a city’s capacity to tolerate with any difficulties and issues. In contact with flood, resilience can be defined as a city capacity to tolerate flooding and to reorganize should physical damage and socioeconomic disruption occur, so as to prevent deaths and injuries and maintain current socioeconomic identity.ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“DOI”:”10.5751/ES-05231-170448″,”ISBN”:”1708-3087″,”ISSN”:”17083087″,”PMID”:”87422153″,”abstract”:”River cities require a management approach based on resilience to floods rather than on resistance.

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Resisting floods by means of levees, dams, and channelization neglects inherent uncertainties arising from human-nature couplings and fails to address the extreme events that are expected to increase with climate change, and is thereby not a reliable approach to long-term flood safety. By applying resilience theory to address system persistence through changes, I develop a theory on “urban resilience to floods” as an alternative framework for urban flood hazard management. Urban resilience to floods is defined as a city’s capacity to tolerate flooding and to reorganize should physical damage and socioeconomic disruption occur, so as to prevent deaths and injuries and maintain current socioeconomic identity. It derives from living with periodic floods as learning opportunities to prepare the city for extreme ones. The theory of urban resilience to floods challenges the conventional wisdom that cities cannot live without flood control, which in effect erodes resilience. To operationalize the theory for planning practice, a surrogate measure the percent floodable area is developed for assessing urban resilience to floods. To enable natural floodplain functions to build urban resilience to floods, flood adaptation is advocated in order to replace flood control for mitigating flood hazards.”,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Liao”,”given”:”Kuei Hsien”,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”container-title”:”Ecology and Society”,”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”4″,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2012″]]},”title”:”A theory on urban resilience to floods-A basis for alternative planning practices”,”type”:”article-journal”,”volume”:”17″},”uris”:[” 2012)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Liao, 2012)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Liao, 2012)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:” 2012)

1.2.2 Linear Park

The purpose of the Linear Parks Master Plan is to provide long-term direction for the planning and construction of a well coordinate , sustainable and environmentally responsible trail network connecting the entire City, to provide recreational opportunities and to accommodate alternative transportation for a diverse range of trail users.ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”November”,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2009″]]},”title”:”Linear Parks Master Plan”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:[” Parks Master Plan</i>, 2009)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Linear Parks Master Plan, 2009)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(<i>Linear Parks Master Plan</i>, 2009)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:” Parks Master Plan, 2009)

The vision of the Linear Parks Master Plan is : An interconnected network of outstanding linear parks, serving all forms of non-vehicular movement, linking points of interest throughout the City, and providing healthy and diverse transportation and outdoor recreation opportunities.ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”November”,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2009″]]},”title”:”Linear Parks Master Plan”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:[” Parks Master Plan</i>, 2009)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Linear Parks Master Plan, 2009)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(<i>Linear Parks Master Plan</i>, 2009)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:” Parks Master Plan, 2009)

Linear parks linking areas of open space. These often follow drainage lines or environmental corridors and can incorporate off road shared pedestrian and cyclist paths.ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“abstract”:”Definition: Parks and open space refers to land that has been reserved for the purpose of formal and informal sport and recreation, preservation of natural environments, provision of green space and/or urban storm water management.”,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Planning Institute of Australia”,”given”:””,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”June”,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2009″]]},”page”:”9″,”title”:”Design Principle – Parks and Open Space”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:[” Institute of Australia, 2009)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Planning Institute of Australia, 2009)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Planning Institute of Australia, 2009)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:” Institute of Australia, 2009)

1.2.3 Thirsty landscaping

Thirst landscaping is derived from two basic words which are “Thirsty” and “Landscape”. Thus definition is as follow:

Thirsty

A sensation of dryness in the mouth and throat associated with a desire for liquids also : the bodily condition (as of dehydration) that induces this sensation

A desire or need to drink

(www.merriam-webster.com)

Landscape

Forman and Godron (1986) defined landscape as a heterogeneous land area composed of a cluster of interacting ecosystems that is repeated in similar form throughout. Turner et al (2002) define landscape as an area that is spatially heterogeneous in at least one factor of interest.

Thus, thirsty landscaping can be define as an open space or area designed focus on taking in water element into the space and utilise it for further purposes. This include through water absorption, filtration or penetration from any area into the focus site and idea.

1.2.4 Flash Flood

A flood is defined as water overflowing onto land that usually is dry. Flooding is often thought of as a result of heavy rainfall, but floods can arise in a number of ways that are not directly related to ongoing weather events.ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“abstract”:”Definition: Parks and open space refers to land that has been reserved for the purpose of formal and informal sport and recreation, preservation of natural environments, provision of green space and/or urban storm water management.”,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Planning Institute of Australia”,”given”:””,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”June”,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2009″]]},”page”:”9″,”title”:”Design Principle – Parks and Open Space”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:[” Institute of Australia, 2009)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Planning Institute of Australia, 2009)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Planning Institute of Australia, 2009)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:” Institute of Australia, 2009)

Flash floods are defined as those flood events where the rise in water is either during or within a few hours of the rainfall that produces the rise. Therefore, flash floods occur within small catchments, where the response time of the drainage basin is short.ADDIN CSL_CITATION {“citationItems”:[{“id”:”ITEM-1″,”itemData”:{“abstract”:”Definition: Parks and open space refers to land that has been reserved for the purpose of formal and informal sport and recreation, preservation of natural environments, provision of green space and/or urban storm water management.”,”author”:[{“dropping-particle”:””,”family”:”Planning Institute of Australia”,”given”:””,”non-dropping-particle”:””,”parse-names”:false,”suffix”:””}],”id”:”ITEM-1″,”issue”:”June”,”issued”:{“date-parts”:[[“2009″]]},”page”:”9″,”title”:”Design Principle – Parks and Open Space”,”type”:”article-journal”},”uris”:[” Institute of Australia, 2009)”,”plainTextFormattedCitation”:”(Planning Institute of Australia, 2009)”,”previouslyFormattedCitation”:”(Planning Institute of Australia, 2009)”},”properties”:{“noteIndex”:0},”schema”:” Institute of Australia, 2009)

Prevalent Issue

In response with the climate change impacts in Malaysia, in states scale, Perak

1.3.1 Problem Statement

Flash floods are common phenomena in the capital city of Malaysia. Every year, the city experiences several flash floods. The location of the city is in the river basin of two major rivers (i.e. Klang River and Gombak River) which is also in the middle of a valley. As a result, floods are inevitable event in the city. Flash floods are mostly caused by the seasonal monsoon rain when inadequate drainage systems are unable to channel the water flow properly. The overflow of the rivers also a major reason for occurring flash floods in the city.

Various structural and non-structural measures were taken in the city after the first massive flash flood in the city in 1971 (Abdullah,2004) which include improvement of the river channels, construction of levees, construction of flood by-passes, construction of sediment traps and improvement of hydrological data recording (Hong and Hong, 2016). However, looking at the recent past, it seems the problem has worsened instead of resolving. For coping with the massive thrive of population growth, urban development, and expansion, it was much needed for bringing balance and efficiency in the performance of the city. In this flood management, several issues were given higher priority such as the proper set-up and implementation of land use regulations, more strict laws on socio-economic development of catchment areas.

However, as a capital city, the pressure of multi-dimensional activities and changes in the landscape had never been eased rather increased day by day. The entry and exit of the extensive population every day in the city, migration from the rural side, massive urbanization and development were and still a nonstop process in the city. As a result, flash floods remain as one of the most serious environmental problems (Mahmoud and Alazba, 2016) of the city

1.4 Aim and Objective of Study

1.4.1 Aim

The goal of my study is to enhance the river quality of Sungai Pinji, Bercham Perak, and proposing linear park to counter occasional flash flood due to overflow of surface water runoff through thirsty landscaping approach and providing space for local community recreational and gathering activity.

1.4.2 Objectives

To propose pervious surface system to adequate more water filtration and absorption into the soil.

To propose aquatic plant species and mini island for solid precipitate filtration and slowing down rivet water velocity

To provide enough space for local community to enjoy a healthy and safe environment that entrusted with recreational and gathering activity.

To prevent pollution combating flood.

To provide environmental benefits such as aquatic life and improved aesthetic for local community

Study Scope

The scope of study is along the riparian zone at riverbank area in Malaysia. The focus of study are to identify the issues and problems at the river area that may contribute to flash flood issue that heavily affected at urban area in Malaysia.

The Study also to identify the suitability of linear park in merge with thirsty landscaping approach to combat flash flood.

Structure of Study

Land planning and design take place within a biophysical and social context. One purpose of land planning and design is to accommodate human need and aspiration. For that reason, design methodology is important because it is a design process of land planning to identify the intrinsic environmental system, development of areas best suited for construction and also the restoration of degraded systems.

Firstly, land planning and design process for this case study begin with site exploration, which mean exploration on the inner city of George Town, Penang. The site exploration basically to identify issues and problems that occur on site. Site exploration is important because it will give initial ideas and the condition of real situation of the site.

Secondly, after doing site exploration, the next stage is data collection. Basically there are three methods to get the data, which are primary, secondary and tertiary. Primary data is the important for case study areas because it is unvarnished information about the results of an experiment or observation. It is like the eyewitness testimony at a trial. In the study of history as an academic discipline, a primary source also called original source or evidence is based from an artifact, a document, a recording, or other source of information that was created at the time.

For this case study area, the primary data was acquired from the Penang Heritage Trust because it is a leader in the ongoing heritage movement in Penang since 1986. Another source of primary data was gain from George Town World Heritage incorporation and Jabatan Perancangan Bandar dan Desa, Pulau Pinang (JPBD). Secondary and primary basically is a relative?s term that functions according to the specific site context. For that reasons, the secondary data was obtain from the Draft George Town Special Area Plan that produce by the Penang Heritage Center. Tertiary data basically obtain from the internet, research paper that related to the case study area.

Site Inventory is the next phase in the land planning and design process. Site inventory process is divided into three parts, which are physical, cultural and biological attributes. The inventory map provides data that needed for the site analysis. Site analysis may entail several kind of evaluation. Information contained in the site physical, biological and cultural might be synthesized. Furthermore, the variety of physical, biological and cultural attributes can influence the suitability of the site for the proposed uses.

The site analysis summarizes the site suitability for programmed uses, which means the synthesized of the case study area by identifying the site positive and negative feature. The next design process is concept development. Concept development is the process of adapting the program to the unique features of the site, occurs after the site analysis. Concept plan spatially organize proposed site activities and improvement on the site.

After that, the next process is design development or also known as schematic design where the conceptual plan will be articulated. Then, the preliminary plan will be illustrate to relies the ideas of the concept. Finally, the last design process is master plan or final product that producing defensible land use decision and, ultimately, higher-quality of built environment.

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As Human Development Has Grown. (2019, Dec 11). Retrieved from http://studymoose.com/chapter-1-805-example-essay

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