Changes in the environment Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 21 April 2017

Changes in the environment

The changes in environment that people in space experience also mean changes in significant cues. For example, there is the absence of a fixed horizon that is expected to reduce the efficiency of a person’s perceptions of shape, distance, location and motion (Man-Systems Integration Standards, 2006). The noise aspect is also considered as a human factor particularly in the design of habitat (Special Issue on the International Workshop on Human Factors in Space, 2000).

One of the critical requirements in space is the ability of people to communicate with each other. There are noise exposure limits that are established because outside Earth, even low levels, especially when it is intermittent noise, can affect the communication system and human performance especially in complex tasks. Noise also causes fatigue, distraction, irritation and aggressiveness which are already under the scope of psychology but nonetheless, far from what are needed by the people in space (Man-Systems Integration Standards, 2006).

The humans must be able to acclimatize themselves to changes in pressure associated with space travel. Because humans are used to atmosphere with 21% oxygen at sea level, equipment and traveling environment are adjusted to maintain an equivalent partial pressure that would sustain life. Pressure values vary from person to person depending on his or her degree of acclimatization to altitude. As a rule, people who are accustomed to higher altitude require less total pressure compared to people who are not accustomed to higher altitude.

The partial pressure for normal people who work in space are usually maintained above 152 mm Hg while those who are not accustomed to such environment must maintain a total pressure above 417 mm Hg (Man-Systems Integration Standards, 2006). Psychology The management of human’s psychological state in space is indeed a part of NASA’s standards. “Human factors research and technology will also ensure that interpersonal interactions are planned maintain a healthy and constructive attitude, thus enhancing productivity and mission success among an international culturally-diverse crew (Man-Systems Integration Standards, 2006).

” This implies an assumption that metal and psychological performance and human interactions could have a very significant role in the success of an exploration. Conclusion With the advent of space age, the human factors research contributes significantly especially to the present knowledge in flight, which involves the participation of humans. Success in space missions would be doubtful without consideration of the human factors to which any mission’s success or failure depends. References Brown, D. L. , DeVilbiss, C. A. , Ercoline, W. R. , and Yauch, D.W. (2000). Post-roll Effects on Attitude Perception: The Gillingham Illusion.

Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 71, 489-495. Bungo, M. W. , & Johnson, P. C. (1983). Cardiovascular Eexaminations and Oobservations of Deconditioning Dduring the Space Shuttle Orbital Flight Test Program. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 54, 1001-1004. Davis J. R. (1999). Medical Issues for a Mission to Mars. Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 70, 162-168. Ercoline, W. R. , Freeman, J. E. , Gillingham, K. K. , and Lyons, T. J.

(1994). Classification Problems of US Air Force Spatial Disorientation Accidents, 1989-91. ” Aviation, Space, and Environmental Medicine, Vol 65, 147-152. Gander P. H, Myhre G, Graeber R. C, Andersen H. T, and Lauber J. K. (1989). Adjustment of Sleep and the Circadian Temperature Rhythm After Flights Across Nnine Time Zones. ” Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 60 (8), 733¬-743. Human factors. (2007). In Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. Retrieved 12 April 2007, from http://en. wikipedia. org/w/index. php? title=Human_factors&oldid=121814170.

Man-Systems Integration Standards (2006). NASA, Vol. 1. Retrieved 9 April 2007 from http://msis. jsc. nasa. gov/sections/section01. htm. Miller (n. d. ). Physical Deconditioning During Prolonged Space Flight. School of Aerospace Medicine, Brooks Air Force Base: Texas. Partners in Space. (2005). European Commission. Retrieved 08 April 2007 from http://ec. europa. eu/research/conferences/2005/esw/conference/partners/article_2004_en. htm. Patton JF, Duggan A. (1987). An evaluation of tests of anaerobic power. Aviation Space Environ Med. Vol. 58, 237-42.

President Bush Announces New Vision for Space Exploration Program. (2004). The White House: Office of the Press Secretary. Retrieved 8 April 2007 from http://www. whitehouse. gov/news/releases/2004/01/20040114-3. html. Sacknoff, S. (2005). State of the Space Industry. International Space Business Council, 1-887022-15-5, 56. Sinha. (2002). “The effect of a 5-day space flight on the immature rat spine. ” The Spine Journal, Vol. 2 (4), 239-243. Special Issue on the International Workshop on Human Factors in Space. (2000). Aviation, Space & Environmental Medicine Journal.

71: Section II. Stern, R. M. , Hu, S. , Anderson, R. B. , Leibowitz, H. W. and Koch, K. L. (1990). “The effects of fixation and restricted visual field on vection-induced motion sickness. ” Aviation, Space and Environmental Medicine, Vol. 61 (8), 712-715. The Human Advantage. (2003). NASA. Retrieved 8 April 2007 from http://liftoff. msfc. nasa. gov/news/2003/news-human. asp. Vogel, J. M. , & Whittle, M. W. (1976). Bone mineral changes: The second manned Skylab mission. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine. Vol. 47, 396-400.

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