The India money market is a monetary system that involves the lending and borrowing of short-term funds. India money market has seen exponential growth just after the globalization initiative in 1991. It has been observed that financial institutions do employ money market instruments for financing short-term monetary requirements of various sectors such as agriculture, finance and manufacturing. The performance of the India money market has been outstanding in the past 20 years. The central bank of the country – the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has always been playing the major role in regulating and controlling the India money market.
The intervention of RBI is varied – curbing crisis situations by reducing the cash reserve ratio (CRR) or infusing more money in the economy. Money market instruments take care of the borrowers’ short-term needs and render the required liquidity to the lenders. The varied types of India money market instruments are treasury bills, repurchase agreements, commercial papers, certificate of deposit, and bankers acceptance.
The major players in the money market are Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Discount and finance House of India (DFHI), banks, financial institutions, mutual funds, government and the giant corporate houses. Indian money market has a dichotomic structure. It has a simultaneous existence of both organized and unorganized money markets. The organized structure consists of the RBI , all scheduled and commercial banks and other recognized financial institutions as mentioned above. However, the unorganized part of the market consists of local moneylenders, indigenous bankers, traders, etc. This part of the market is outside the purview of the RBI.
Issues and challenges of the Indian money market
The money market in India has undergone tremendous developments since past twenty years. However, it is still not free of certain rigidities that are hampering the growth of the market. They are: 1. Dichotomy between Organized and Unorganized Sectors:
The most important defect of the Indian money market is its division into two sectors: (a) the organised sector and (b) the unorganized sector. There is little contact, coordination and cooperation between the two sectors. In such conditions it is difficult for the Reserve Bank to ensure uniform and effective implementations of monetary policy in both the sectors.
2. Predominance of Unorganized Sector:
Another important defect of the Indian money market is its predominance of unorganised sector. The indigenous bankers occupy a significant position in the money-lending business in the rural areas. In this unorganized sector, no clear-cut distinction is made between short-term and long-term and between the purposes of loans. These indigenous bankers, which constitute a large portion of the money market, remain outside the organized sector. Therefore, they seriously restrict the Reserve Bank’s control over the money market,
3. Wasteful Competition:
Wasteful competition exists not only between the organised and unorganised sectors, but also among the members of the two sectors. The relation between various segments of the money market are not cordial; they are loosely connected with each other and generally follow separatist tendencies. For example, even today, the State Bank of Indian and other commercial banks look down upon each other as rivals. Similarly, competition exists between the Indian commercial banks and foreign banks.
4. Absence of All-India Money Market:
Indian money market has not been organised into a single integrated all-Indian market. It is divided into small segments mostly catering to the local financial needs. For example, there is little contact between the money markets in the bigger cities, like, Bombay, Madras, and Calcutta and those in smaller towns.
5. Inadequate Banking Facilities:
Indian money market is inadequate to meet the financial need of the economy. Although there has been rapid expansion of bank branches in recent years particularly after the nationalization of banks, yet vast rural areas still exist without banking facilities. As compared to the size and population of the country, the banking institutions are not enough.
6. Shortage of Capital:
Indian money market generally suffers from the shortage of capital funds. The availability of capital in the money market is insufficient to meet the needs of industry and trade in the country. The main reasons for the shortage of capital are: (a) low saving capacity of the people; (b) inadequate banking facilities, particularly in the rural areas; and (c) undeveloped banking habits among the people.
7. Seasonal Shortage of Funds:
A Major drawback of the Indian money market is the seasonal stringency of credit and higher interest rates during a part of the year. Such a shortage invariably appears during the busy months from November to June when there is excess demand for credit for carrying on the harvesting and marketing operations in agriculture. As a result, the interest rates rise in this period. On the contrary, during the slack season, from July to October, the demand for credit and the rate of interest decline sharply.
8. Diversity of Interest Rates:
Another defect of Indian money market is the multiplicity and disparity of interest rates. In 1931, the Central Banking Enquiry Committee wrote: “The fact that a call rate of 3/4 per cent, a hundi rate of 3 per cent, a bank rate of 4 per cent, a bazar rate of small traders of 6.25 per cent and a Calcutta bazar rate for bills of small trader of 10 per cent can exist simultaneously indicates an extraordinary sluggishness of the movement of credit between various markets.”
The interest rates also differ in various centres like Bombay, Calcutta, etc. Variations in the interest rate structure is largely due to the credit immobility because of inadequate, costly and time-consuming means of transferring money. Disparities in the interest rates adversely affect the smooth and effective functioning of the money market.
9. Absence of Bill Market:
The existence of a well-organized bill market is essential for the proper and efficient working of money market. Unfortunately, in spite of the serious efforts made by the Reserve Bank of India, the bill market in India has not yet been fully developed. The short-term bills form a much smaller proportion of the bank finance in India as compared to that in the advanced countries. Many factors are responsible for the underdeveloped bill market in India: * Most of the commercial transactions are made in terms of cash. * Cash credit is the main form of borrowing from the banks. Cash credit is given by the banks against the security of commodities. No bills are involved in this type of credit. * The practice of advancing loans by the sellers also limits the use of bills.
* Heavy stamp duty discourages the use of exchange bills. * Absence of acceptance houses is another factor responsible for the underdevelopment of bill market in India. * In their desire to ensure greater liquidity and public confidence, the Indian banks prefer to invest their funds in first class government securities than in exchange bills. * The RBI also prefers to extend rediscounting facility to the commercial banks against approved securities. Comparison of Indian money market with Developed & Developing economies MONEY MARKET IN A DEVELOPED ECONOMY (with the US in reference)
The domestic money market in the United States carries out the largest volume of transactions of any such market in the world; its participants include the most heterogeneous group of financial and nonfinancial concerns to be found in any money market; it permits trading in an unusually wide variety of money substitutes; and it is less centralized geographically than the money market of any other country. Although there has always been a clustering of money market activities in New York City and much of the country’s participation in the international money market centers there, a process of continuous change during the 20th century has produced a genuinely national money market.
The unit banking system: This system has led inevitably to striking differences between money market arrangements in the United States and those of other countries. At times, some smaller banks almost inevitably find that the wholesale facilities of the money market cannot provide promptly the funds needed to meet unexpected reserve drains, as deposits move about the country from one bank to another.
MONEY MARKET IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES
Well-developed money markets exist in only a few high-income countries. In other countries money markets are narrow, poorly integrated, and in many cases virtually nonexistent. Despite the many differences among countries, one can say in general that the degree of development of a country’s financial system, including its money markets, is directly related to the level of its economy. Most developing countries, except those having socialist systems, have the encouragement of money markets as a policy objective, if only to provide outlets for short-term government securities. At the same time many of these governments pursue low-interest-rate policies in order to reduce the cost of government debt and to encourage investment.
Such policies discourage saving and make money market instruments unattractive. Nevertheless, a demand for short-term funds and a supply of them exist in all market-oriented economies. In many developing countries these pressures have led to “unorganized money markets,” which are often highly developed in urban areas Such markets are unorganized because they are outside “normal” financial institutions; they manage to escape government controls over interest rates; but at the same time they do not function very effectively because interest rates are high and contacts between localities and among borrowers and lenders are limited.
Money Market Instruments in India:
1. COMMERCIAL PAPERS (CPs) :
Commercial Paper (CP) is a negotiable short-term unsecured promissory note with fixed maturity, issued by well-rated companies generally sold on discount basis. It does not originate from any specific self-liquidating trade transaction like commercial bill which generally arise out of specific trade or commercial transaction. CP was introduced in India in 1990 with a view to enabling highly rated corporate borrowers to diversify their sources of short-term borrowings and to provide an additional instrument to investors. The CP rates usually lie between prime lending rate of commercial banks and some benchmark interest rate like 91-day Treasury bill rate, bank rate, 3 month MIBOR, Average Call Money Rate, etc. Except for the bank rate, which is a policy- induced rate, other rates are market determined.
Risks associated with Cps:
Credit Risk: Moderate to high. The ratings of the company issuing the commercial paper should be monitored; i.e., A-1/P-1. Liquidity Risk: Moderate. If a company has credit problems it may receive a negative credit watch, which will lead to a rating being downgraded. Commercial paper also may be somewhat difficult to sell. Market Risk: Moderate, due to the short-term nature of this security.
CHALLENEGES ASSOCIATED WITH CPs:
* Higher financial costs force organizational decisions and changes
* Substantial initial collateral requirements
* More risky as debt holders can force closure of MFI
* More tricky cash flow management as principal is repaid
* Early negotiations require a new set of skills and contacts
* Local banks may not be willing to be cooperative
* Loans may be dollarized in an inflationary situation
* Too many subsidized loans can retard move to market rate
2. CERTIFICATE OF DEPOSITS (CDs) :
This scheme was introduced in July 1989, to enable the banking system to mobilize bulk deposits from the market, which they can have at competitive rates of interest. The major features are: Who can issue- Scheduled commercial banks (except RRBs) and All India Financial Institutions within their `Umbrella limit’. Investors- Individuals (other than minors), corporations, companies, trusts, funds, associations etc Maturity -Min: 7 days Max : 12 Months (in case of FIs minimum 1 year and maximum 3 years). Amount- Min: Rs.1 lac, beyond which in multiple of Rs.1 lac Interest Rate- Market related. Fixed or floating
Loan- Against collateral of CD not permitted
Pre-mature cancellation- Not allowed
Transfer, Endorsement & delivery- Any time
• If payment day is holiday, to be paid on next preceding business day
•Issued at a discount to face value
•Duplicate can be issued after giving a public notice & obtaining indemnity
CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH CDs:
* No additions are permitted to be made to any CD. Unless otherwise required by law CDs may not be withdrawn prior to maturity. When one purchases a CD, he has to agree with the issuing depository institution to keep your funds on deposit for the term of the CD. * CDs are not automatically renewed
* CDs are relatively illiquid and taxable instruments. Hence, generally people do not find an incentive to hold CDs. * One might not get a fixed interest rate if you choose the wrong type of CD. It’s important to understand the distinction between variable-rate CDs (which can be less predictable) and those that offer fixed rates.
3. TREASURY BILLS (T-BILLS) :
Treasury bills, popularly known as T-bills, are short-term finance bills issued by the government. They are not backed by any trade transaction, like the commercial bills. These bills are highly liquid and risk-free as they are backed by a guarantee from the government. They were earlier issued for 91 days but now there are also 182 days and 364 days treasury bills. These treasury bills are floated through auctions conducted by RBI. The Reserve Bank of India as the leader and controller of money market, buys and sells these treasury bills. The buying and selling operations are conducted by DFHI on behalf of RBI for stabilizing the money market.
Who can buy – Treasury bills can be purchased by any one (including individuals) except State govt. These are issued by RBI and sold through fortnightly or monthly auctions at varying discount rate depending upon the bids. Denomination – Minimum amount of face value Rs.1L and in multiples thereof. There is no specific amount/limit on the extent to which these can be issued or purchased. Maturity : 91-days TBs, 182-days TBs, 364-days TBs and two types of 14-days TBills. Rate of interest -Market determined, based on demand for and supply of funds in the money market.
CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH T-BILLS:
* T-Bills do not fetch very attractive yields.
* Though T-bills are sold through auction in order to ensure market rates for the investor, in actuality, competitive bids are almost absent. The RBI is compelled to accept these non-competitive bids , hence, adequate returns are not available. It makes T-bills unpopular.
* Generally , the investors hold T-Bills till maturity and they do not come for circulation. Hence, active trading and mobility in T-bill market is adversely affected.
4. REPURCHASE AGREEMENT (REPO AND REVERSE REPO) :
Repo is a money market instrument, which enables collateralized short term borrowing and lending through sale/purchase operations in debt instruments. Under a repo transaction, a holder of securities sells them to an investor with an agreement to repurchase at a predetermined date and rate. In the case of a repo, the forward clean price of the bonds is set in advance at a level which is different from the spot clean price by adjusting the difference between repo interest and coupon earned on the security. A reverse repo is the mirror image of a repo. For, in a reverse repo, securities are acquired with a simultaneous commitment to resell.
Hence whether a transaction is a repo or a reverse repo is determined only in terms of who initiated the first leg of the transaction. When the reverse repurchase transaction matures, the counterparty returns the security to the entity concerned and receives its cash along with a profit spread. One factor which encourages an organization to enter into reverse repo is that it earns some extra income on its otherwise idle cash. Broadly, there are four types of repos available in the international market when classified with regard to maturity of underlying securities, pricing, term of repo etc. They comprise buy-sell back repo, classic repo bond borrowing and lending and tripartite repos.
CHALLENGES ASSOCIATED WITH REPURCHASE AGREEMENTS:
* As far as risks are concerned although repos are collateralized transactions they are still exposed to counterparty risk and the issuer risk associated with the collateral. As far as the counterparty risk is concerned, the investor should be able to liquidate the securities received as collateral, thus largely offsetting any loss. Against this the seller /lender of bonds will hold cash or other securities as protection against non-return of the lent securities. In both the cases it is to be ensured that the realizable value equals or exceeds the exposure.
* There is also the concentration risk resulting from illiquid issues which are used as collateral in the transaction.
* Again, even where global agreements are signed full transfer of ownership as per contractual protections could be enforced only where a clean legal opinion is available in respect of jurisdiction concerned. In other words, repos are also prone to legal risks if care is not taken.
5. MONEY MARKET MUTUAL FUNDS (MMMF):
6. COLLATERALIZED BORROWING AND LENDING OBLIGATION (CBLO)
It is a money market instrument as approved by RBI, is a product developed by CCIL (Clearing Council of India Ltd) . CBLO is a discounted instrument available in electronic book entry form for the maturity period ranging from one day to 90 Days (can be made available up to one year as per RBI guidelines). CBLO is explained as under:
• An obligation by the borrower to return the money borrowed, at a specified future date; • An authority to the lender to receive money lent, at a specified future date with an option/privilege to transfer the authority to another person for value received; • An underlying charge on securities held in custody (with CCIL) for the amount borrowed/lent.
Banks, financial institutions, primary dealers, mutual funds and co-operative banks, who are members of NDS, are allowed to participate in CBLO transactions. Non-NDS members like corporate, co-operative banks, NBFCs, Pension/Provident Funds, Trusts etc. are allowed to participate by obtaining Associate Membership to CBLO Segment. In order to enable the market participants to borrow and lend funds, CCIL provides the Dealing System through: – Indian Financial Network (INFINET), a closed user group to the Members of the Negotiated Dealing System (NDS) who maintain Current account with RBI. – Internet gateway for other entities who do not maintain Current account with RBI.