Causes and Effects of the French Revolution

The French Revolution (1789-1799) was caused by the rivalry between the monarchy of France versus the french republic. For 1000 years Europeans, including the french lived as vassals and the society was divided into three estates. The first estate was made up of the church leaders, the main people who ran the country, and collected constant ‘donations’ or tax from the lowest class.

The second estate was made up of the nobility, who didn’t have any sort of significant other than being somewhat related or associated with the church leaders, they also collected tax from the lowest class. The third estate was made up of the commoners of France, there were three types of people in this estate, Bourgeoisie, who in most cases were just as wealthy is the higher estates but wasn’t treated the same due to social status, urban labors, and cultural peasants. The third estate made up the majority of the population of France and gave nearly all their earning to pay tax for the first and second estates which caused an uprising within the third estate to make a change to the government (from monarchy to republic) and how they were treated.

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In Europe, a new movement arose during the time of the renaissance and french revolution, where it is was a intercullectial and philosophical movement where people starter rejecting the teachings of the church and instead looked upon science for the answers, and started prioritizing art and culture over God. Due to the enlightenment people from the third estate started to believe that they shouldn’t have been paying all of the taxes and they deserved equality within France.

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It also good to take into consideration that there was a famine in France during the winter of 1778, meaning the prices of food, specifical bread was extremely high and brought upon riots over the ridiculous and unaffordable prices.

France was in a state of constant change for a total of four years after the storming of the bastille. Eventually, a group of radicals took over the government and lead France, the men that claimed leadership of France was called the Committee of Public Safety. It all started when the leader of the Committee of Public Safety, Roberspirian, declared that terror would be “the order of the day” on September 5, 1793. Anyone that wasn’t loyal to the revolution and his ways of leading would be trialed, arrested, or executed. Roberspiran was also the leader of a group called the Jacobins who took extreme measures to change the way the society of France functioned including trying to eradicate Christianity from France and used terror to achieve this. During the reign of terror, people had to take extreme caution in their actions and sayings, due to any sign of opposition to the revolution would mean they could be trialed, arrested, or executed. During the reign of terror, there were approximately 17,000 people trialed and further executed and 200,000 people were arrested for treason against the Roberspirians way. The reign of terror officially ended on July 27, 1794, when Roberspirian’s enemies devised a plan to overrule Rosperian and strip him of all his power, and executed him the day after.

Jean-Paul Marat was a key person during the french revolution due to his contributions to the radical thinking supporting the Committee of National Health and the Robersirian’s leadership. Jean-Paul Marat was a political journalist and during the revolution, he created his own newspaper called L’Ami du Peuple (The friend of the people), where he would write down several pieces on his opinion of the enemies of the revolution, and fueled radical thinking during Ropersperians reign as a leader. In his writings, Jean-Paul Marat wrote about the Girondins, who was a political group opposing the national committee of health and were considered enemies to Roberspirian leadership and his government, Marat would slander the name of the Girondins as he believed their intentions were completely evil and against the revolution, getting several people arrested and executed due to him exposing them. Marat also in his early stages of writing about the revolution would slander the name of the second estate, refusing to believe that they should be in any sort of leadership due to their support of the first estates and the leadership of King Louis XVI reign and also demanding tax from the third estate, making them seem as hypocrites when they backed up the cause of the revolution. Jean-Paul Marat’s newspaper was extremely popular during the time, inspiring many french people to give into the radical thinking of roberspirian making Marat an extremely important person during this age of time due to the fact that what he wrote was propaganda and influenced the french people's beliefs with radical and illogical thinking. Eventually, Charlotte Corday, a girodinist supporter sought out to kill Marat due to the fact she thought there would be no change and only radical thinking because of his writings influencing the minds of the people.

Updated: Aug 12, 2021
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Causes and Effects of the French Revolution. (2020, Oct 15). Retrieved from

Causes and Effects of the French Revolution essay
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