The scope of this essay will discuss the political legacy of colonisation and western cultures influence in colonial territories in relations to the extinction of indigenous cultural practices. The essay will be used to evaluate colonialism in terms of political economic, the impact of colonialism on indigenous people which is widely considered as one of the unforgettable and greatest atrocities committed against mankind. The theory of colonialism addresses the problems and consequences of the colonisation of a country, and there has been much research conducted exploring these concepts.
Colonialism takes many forms, but the causes seem to remain the same: power, religion, status, and most of all greed. Always greed. It takes tremendous amounts of greed to travel to another land to kill, maim, subjugate, and even enslave another people.
Also the first and second face of the essay will discuss the annihilation of indigenous culture thorough colonisation. The annihilation of ethnicity and the profit of slavery believe to be the result of western imperialism in relation to conceptualising settler colonisation.
This essay will also focus various social and cultural dynamics of colonised cultures which have destroyed native people social and political ideas. On this note, priorities will be placed on discussing the social stratification, economic aspects of aboriginal life and beliefs and institutional racism experienced in the 21st century.
Importantly, the goals of this essay are to re-examine the destruction of indigenous knowledge in post-colonial era, secondly the economic impacts of colonialism on developing countries and the effect of maintaining a racialized culture. As well as the impact of colonisation itself on humanity. Similarly, a critical look at ensuing cultures and the typology emerging from various approaches will be outlines to better establish an understanding of colonisation consequence on man kinds, involving the annihilation and depletion of indigenous culture and knowledge.
In contrast, these distinct relationships identified between the indigenous people and the colonialists. Fundamentally, the basic idea of colonialism was codified by land grasps, the desire for natural resources and free labour that eventually evolved with slavery.
While another aspect of colonisation aligned with controlling land that are already owned by indigenous people. Meanwhile, Edward Said points out the rate at which Europe acquires land at the end of colonial reign.
On this backdrop, on orientalism standpoint, Edward illustrated a significant point that the cultural anthropology within indigenous cultural framework outline the significant of aboriginal peoples view on the world differently. For example, the seas world, physical world, spirit and environments, irrespective to supernatural (religions) and the economic aspects.
However, Aboriginal people understand the physical world and sea country which is about the marine world, different from scientific views, the combinations of colonised culture and settlers cultures were systemically to annihilate indigenous people.
In other words, postcolonial criticism can attest to the unequal and uneven forces of cultural misrepresentation involving the idea of political and social authority , while it is coherent that post-colonial perspective is used as a social authority parallel to the so-called modern world order creating strong political divisions, by the renaming or branding entire countries as third world or developing countries which also constitute the concept of liquidating indigenous people .
Meanwhile, to explore the applicability of cultural practices, colonisation disallowed such, in a social context, the social construct reflects on shares history, religion, beliefs, arts music and songs in which surrounds indigenous peoples cultures was developed many years ago.
According to (wayland,2010) indigenous Australian were involved in many different parts of Australian life , he noted that when the Europeans arrive in 1788, the indigenous peoples had to adapt to the changes they brought with them , often against their wishes , now indigenous Australian embarked on traditional arts , music and dance to their stories and pass their cultures on to future generation
Another key thing to understand is the automatization of colonial languages in various indigenous colonies with separate norms imposed on indigenous people globally which also helps to systematically annihilate indigenous cultures. Arguably, it could be contended that colonialism was not all about economic subjugation, it also about taking complete control over African resources.
In the social context many spectacular practices involving religion and other beliefs drew attention to what is referred to as nation. However, according to (Colson 2010) revealed that Aboriginal cultural believes suggest that in the beginning the world had no mountains, rocks or rivers, they also believe that spirit accretors came out of the grounds and began to shape the land scape as they moved around.
For example, A mountain may be a fallen body of a spirit accentors they also believed that some of these ancestors gave birth to human, while each indigenous Australian nation believes in different spirit ancestors, they camp compromises of human, animals, trees, rock or stars. Meanwhile, Tjurunga called Churinga are important religions objects and songs for some nations such as the Arrernte, in context, Tjurunga might be sacred hills where ceremonies take place, or stone or wooden object, while Arreernte ceremonies, the indigenous Australian paint religious art on the ground and sing scared songs, while spirituality takes shapes in many forms, dreaming is part of aboriginal spirituality and religion , consist of stories and tales about creation is an important to aboriginal history.
In another social construct, Aboriginal people live on many laws, for example, our Anangu and Tjukurrpas and the white -fela laws, these laws are thought from generation to generation, and they also have the cultural laws covering marriage, skin kinships and spiritual laws of the aboriginal lands.
According to aboriginal cultures and histories, their ancestors migrated from South East Asia, while some people believe that aboriginal people came from different places. Ironically some of their cultures have been extinct or varnished and some of their cultures is been practiced all over the world. According to history, when European colonisers arrived, there were approximately three Hundred thousand to one million aborigine people already living in Australia.
For instance, Indigenous arts are an expression of belonging and connection to country, these artistical traditional practices are symbolically applied during ceremony or represent land scape, features, bush foods historical events and ways of knowing things.
Aboriginal belief there were many mythologies and rituals connection between both ancestors as a creator of the world, none of whom never died but merged with the natural world that compromises of present day.
Additionally, indigenous people used their arts to depict themes and symbols that were readily handed down from generation within their art systems of indigenous people. On the other hand, aboriginal and Torres strait Islanders used art to exemplified scared iconographical that is not published or made known for various reason, either fear of exploitation, misappropriations of indigenous arts and crafts, unauthorised publications and copying of aboriginal cultural values and knowledge need protection and proper management, these circumstances are the results of colonialism.
Moreover, Conditions that led to aboriginal cultural l extinction and disappearing of their languages was due to European invasion, occupation and killings which immeasurably served as a contributing factor to aboriginal cultures eradication in many countries globally, they indigenous were considered as a pet and the European colonisers culture was imposed on them.
Additionally, the discernment against aboriginal people was not unnoticed in the 20th century, the laws during those times were severely unfair. Aboriginal people were not allowed to participate in anything involving white people. For example, the annihilation of nine kinship groups of Tasmania groups of Tasmania Aboriginal suffered terribly at the hands of white invaders, and while some have suggested history has unfairly reported the lost tribes. According to (Wolfe,2006) coined that the settlers colonial perception of empty land became a social structure. A conceptual framework that supported the invasive settler colonial society was us to obfuscate or erased indigenous presence on the land.
The first face of colonisations impacts
On this backdrop, under the colonised cultures as an internalised attitude base on inferiority was overtly and widespread in various, including physical violence was also propagated against the indigenous. This covert structural violence led to many disadvantaging conditions during the period of colonialism in Africa and elsewhere: People also experience cultural genocide under psychosocial conditions associated by structural and institutional violence suffered psychologically as direct impacts.
However, it is coined that colonialism structure viewed aboriginal people as none human. Moreover, according to (Veracini 2005) maintained that Settler colonialism was the idea of replacing indigenous people with an invasive settler society through genocidal practices or extinction policies.
The high level of exploitation and share arrogance codified by capitalism to accumulate capital wealth at the expense of colonisation created none competitive environment for competition and economic vibrancy within the post-colonial countries , due to lack of economic and social emancipation, these conditions created an unending dependency relationships between colonised countries and colonialist which has contributed to internal and external problems for local communities once occupied by colonists ,these constraints are the results of colonial systems imposed for the harvest of natural resources.
Despite these arguments of colonialism benefits and negative effects, it should be noted that colonialism created huge problems in Africa than the so-called benefits, in context, dependency theory implies that colonising states heavily exploited their colonising areas and imposed subordinate or inferior conditions as a results Africa remains economically impoverished and poorly governed. One could argue that colonialism benefited developed from the practices of extractive natural resources and slavery, in which many colonised territories were not given reparation to align with decolonisation process. Notwithstanding, the negative effects of colonialism involving slavery had evolved as modern slavery in the context of migration to seek greener pasture in developed countries , huge land mass were seized either through colonial policies .African culture was destroyed or diluted , traditions distorted and lifestyles was permanently thrashed .
Amidst these conditions, according to (Spear 2003) argued that by no means all ethnic divisions originated in the colonial period. Admittedly, to repair these impacts of colonisation on colonial state in Africa seem to be extremely impossible, some colonies have set up a benchmark by protecting properties for agricultural investors, in the sense of preserving ownership.
In west Africa, without the settlers pressures on African access to land, and given the expansion of cash crops that occurred early in the colonial period and again in the 50s, neither the political case nor the economic case for compulsory land slanting was as yet compelling (Austin 2009).
The second of face of colonisation impacts is foreign rulership and unfamiliar governance systems imposed by colonial masters that created more problems for their colonies, these alien systems were used to deprive and manipulate natives people. In another words, the systems of governance introduced in Africa, especially in colonial areas were disadvantaging and it does undermine the freedom of African.
However, colonialism as a structure has multiple dimensional impacts on indigenous people, today many countries in the world are economically disadvantaged and strangulated, these types of colonial gaze is referred to neo-colonialism. According to (Bonila 2015) argued that racial inequality often gets misrecognised as a natural process rather than a by product of a system of racial domination to maintain a racialized society.
However, Colonial expansion consolidate racism, for instance, Darwinism constructed race as the repository to scientific segregation, through colonialism, exclusion based on class gender, and race were legitimised, under racial context, liberal society promoted racial differences under colonial regime by placing certain people in a classificatory position.
Arguing from similar perspectives, Kwasi Wiredu conceptualised decolonisation in African philosophy that colonialism has not only affected Africas political society but also destructively impeded Africas mental capacity and reasoning, while Nkrumah views neo-colonialism as a direct form of economic subjugation which continued to be framed in international policies in view of colonial standpoint.
According to (Nkrumah 1965) contended that, neo-colonialism is the last stage of imperialism an analysis of neo-colonialism in relation to imperialism.
In many accounts of social and political theory, decolonisation theory is closely associated with the standpoint theory in context which is use to showcase alternatives drawing to Marxist theorist as another style of control structures.
For example, in the orientalism construct , Edward Said argued that orientalism is associated with ontological and epistemological distinction , which is western styles ideology for dominating and manipulating knowledge which is used to maintained the colonised strangulated and subjugated through other means , that is to say, racism as a tools colonisation is deeply rooted in power structures between races , authority and institutions.
Notably, the concept of cultural revitalisation which have been shifted long times ago seem to be a key portion and a conscious act of cultural standpoint, therefore , it is incumbent upon the system to resuscitate those dismantled cultural during colonisation that will align with the idea of regeneration .It is imperative to restore traditional people needs to teach culture lessons and indigenous people traditions destroyed by colonisations .
Nevertheless, another thing to remember is that colonialist rationalised that relationships are the results of one barbarism replacing another barbarism, while people preferably decide to deconstruct their cultures and ideologies because the social stratification is founded and maintained in the hegemony, and in regards to the cultures of colonisation (Farnon,1956).
By contrast, constructivism view relationships as some based on interrelationship between people that are crafted in a contextualised space, in the constructivist arguments, knowledge is temporarily and culturally situated, therefore knowledge are socially constructed to aligned with cultures, institutions and historical basis, as relates ton indigenous people the colonisers have different perspective.
According to (Freiere 1970) suggest that, constructivists reiterate the notion that knowledge is not a substance that can be deposited like money in any bank and withdraw for whatever purposes.
Despite the notion of post -coloniality impacts on indigenous people , settlers colonies had worse record of poverty reduction in many developing countries , while settler colonial societies globally tend on power structures and social controls, additionally, extreme powers are exercise based on judiciously constructed racist narratives and the dehumanisation of indigenous people driven by settlers expansion as a concept of settlers colonisation which has been the parameter of imperialist -colonialism for decades created huge impacts . Contentiously, the debate on colonisation involving marginalisation which had devastating impacts on indigenous people on occupied lands in the 21st century.
On the contrary , with these strong evidence ,it could be argued that aboriginal people have unique culture ,for example ,indigenous people have knowledge on tools and weapons , while men and boys are charged with the responsibility to made tools and weapons from things they found in nature ,these weapons includes spears and clubs made from stones, shells , woods and animals bones, this proves that constructivist does not align with indigenous cultures . In other words, indigenous Australian have always made their own medicine from plants and animals in their environment. In view of colonised cultures, which is internalised attitude of ethnic culture inferiority by people.
According to (Wolfe 1999), settler operated according to their own perceptions base on terra nullius , meaning empty land -despite the obvious occupants in person of indigenous people with unique social cultures practices were not recognised due to settlement colonisations perception , Wolfe further argued that , in order to reconcile the colonial imaginary of empty land with the embodied experience of settlement brought colonial into direct and sustained contact with the indigenous people , while settlers cultures developed complex narratives that annihilate indigenous peoples humanity .
However, to buttress these above arguments, the conditions that continued to keep former colonies enslaved by the bound of western imperialism, while these countries still being recognised as an independent country is absolutely hypocritical, which means the context of independence need to be further addressed.
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