Capstone: Foster Care and Amp Essay

Custom Student Mr. Teacher ENG 1001-04 24 December 2016

Capstone: Foster Care and Amp

Abstract

The project was designed to address high increase in homeless youth not transitioning into adulthood successfully. In fall 2011, a review of the literature confirmed the existence of high rates of homeless youth not transitioning into adulthood successfully. The literature attributed the problem to several causal factors of low income jobs, unemployment, and lack of formal education. There has not been a prototype project conducted within the literature. A need assessment survey of the target population and a data extraction tool was used to represent the target population indicated that new program would help in addressing this problem. A change project was designed at the beginning of the semester, and the objectives were to increase the knowledge of basic life skills by 10%. Evaluation findings showed that the new program increased the level of knowledge of basic skills and rate of youth returning to homelessness decreased by 10%.

Table of Contents
Chapter Page Number
I. Introduction 5
II. Review of Literature 7
III. Needs Assessment 19
IV. Project Implementation 38
V. Project Evaluation 44
VI. Institutionalization and Stabilization 51 VII. Integration of Relevant Concepts 52
VIII. References 53
IX. Appendices 59

Chapter I: Introduction
Background of the Problem

Today, experiencing homelessness has nothing to do with a person’s intrinsic worth. Homelessness is a complex social issue with many variables. Unfortunately, for those experiencing homelessness, the impact of the values of the 1640s are still pervasive. In America many still hold to this tenet, that one only needs to pick themselves up by their bootstraps and into the pursuit of the American dream and for those who cannot, they deserve to be destitute for they bring no ‘added value’ to society (Thompson, Bender, Windsor, Cook, & Williams, 2010). Homelessness means not having a home, living in a place not intended for habitation, or unstably housed. Homelessness in the United States is primarily addressed by providing emergency and transitional shelter facilities that do not directly address the cause of homelessness (Culhane & Metraux, 2008). The Industrial Revolution starting in the 1820s-‘30s people began migrating from the farm to the city in search of jobs. Philadelphia and New York had many people walking the streets causing the country’s first pan-handling ordinances.

City jails became de facto shelter systems. Poor safety regulation caused a lot of physical disability and death. Those disabled and widows, many with dependent children had no means to provide for themselves and nowhere to turn. The 1850s brought the first documented cases of homeless youth, many of whom were kicked out of their homes because their providers could no longer afford to raise them (Thompson, Bender, Windsor, Cook & Williams, 2010). Systemic issues have been established over time. People living in generational poverty do not have the resources and support to become educated and move out of poverty. Racial divides still occur in the areas of healthcare, education, access to mortgages, access to equal paying jobs among many others (Thompson, Bender, Windsor, Cook & Williams, 2010).

There has been an increase in homelessness among African American male and female adolescents in the City of Philadelphia. In doing this research, the purpose was to address homeless youth transitioning into adulthood globally and locally. In looking at homelessness globally and locally, there are many causes, contributing factors, and possible interventions to decrease homelessness not only in America, but in the world. Youth who are homeless are in the situation for many reasons that do not attribute to their own doing. Homeless youth transitioning into adulthood have a difficult task, when one doesn’t have or wasn’t taught the skills to do so in society. In Philadelphia, youth that age out of foster care placement at age 18 are left to go to emergency shelters, house hop between family members, or resort to life on the streets. The range of the housing problems among adolescents who have left foster care may be underestimated as 12% to 14% of young people experience homelessness within a few years after they leave the system (Fowler, Toro, & Miles, 2009).

The need for housing placement, education, and employment are services that homeless youth lack in their lives (Fowler, Toro, & Miles, 2009). ). The research states some causes and contributing factors range from familial abuse, conflict, or neglect, mental health issues, sexual orientations, lack of education, lack of employment, lack of affordable housing, and housing programs ending at 21 years of age. Homeless youth have trouble with completing school due to the lack of adequate housing. In addition, due to the lack of housing these youth limit their opportunities for gainful employment. In doing this research, the focus is on ways to prevent or decrease homelessness in youth who are aging out of foster care or aging out of housing programs at 21. The information given by the research will provide a frame of reference of the causes and solutions to homelessness. Throughout the study, the results will determine if the research has covered all causes, possible solutions, and limitations to those solutions in dealing with this issue of homelessness.

Chapter II: Review of Literature

Homeless has been the label given to adolescents that are discharged from foster care, too old for the group homes, or kicked out of parents homes placing blame on the youth. This literature review will address the problem, the causes, and the solution relating to Homeless Adolescence successful transition into Independence. This review will conceptualize the problem, considering various approaches and interventions that might decrease the levels of homeless youth in the United States. The information in this review will cover the years between 2007 and 2012. Authors with similar presentations will be compared and those with differing views will be contrasted.

Overview

Today, those experiencing homelessness has nothing to do with a person’s intrinsic worth. Homelessness is a complex social issue with many variables. Unfortunately, for those experiencing homelessness, the impact of the values of the 1640s are still pervasive. In America many still hold to this tenet, that one only needs to pick themselves up by their bootstraps and into the pursuit of the American dream and for those who cannot, they deserve to be destitute for they bring no ‘added value’ to society (Thompson, Bender, Windsor, Cook, & Williams, 2010). The Industrial Revolution starting in the 1820s-‘30s people began migrating from the farm to the city in search of jobs. Philadelphia and New York had many people walking the streets causing the country’s first pan-handling ordinances. City jails became de facto shelter systems. Poor safety regulation caused a lot of physical disability and death. Those disabled and widows, many with dependent children had no means to provide for themselves and nowhere to turn.

The 1850s brought the first documented cases of homeless youth, many of whom were kicked out of their homes because their providers could no longer afford to raise them (Thompson, Bender, Windsor, Cook & Williams, 2010). Systemic issues have been established over time. People living in generational poverty do not have the resources and support to become educated and move out of poverty. Racial divides still occur in the areas of healthcare, education, access to mortgages, access to equal paying jobs among many others (Thompson, Bender, Windsor, Cook & Williams, 2010). One approach to combat homeless was in New York City. Shelters were used to house many homeless men, women and children on the streets. In 1979, Robert Hayes brought a lawsuit against a homeless man.

Through this lawsuit, he cited Article XVII which declares that the aid, care, and support of the needy are a public concern and shall be provided by the state. This lawsuit provided homeless men with shelter if they had any psychical, mental, social issues (Jannson, 2009, p. 585). Another approach to solve the problem of homelessness is to increase affordable housing. According to Milburn, Rice, Rotheram-Brous, Mallet, Rosenthal, Batterham, and Duan, in Western developed nations, the normal developmental trajectory for adolescents has been well documented. From early to late adolescence, young people increasingly move toward independence and autonomy with the relationship and/or the relative influence of families, friends, and social institutions as socializing agents shifting over time. By early adolescence, the role of family has changed while the importance of peers and friends, as well as that of teachers and others in institutional settings, increases

Scope of the Problem

Homelessness means not having a home, living in a place not intended for habitation, or unstably housed. Homelessness in the United States is primarily addressed by providing emergency and transitional shelter facilities that do not directly address the cause of homelessness (Culhane&Metraux, 2008). Over one million youth are without a stable residence on a given night and more than 750,000 are of school age (Tierney, Gupton, &Hallett, 2008). Tierney, Gupton, and Hallett (2008) state a little over 5 percent of all youth in America who are under 18 will experience homelessness at some point before adulthood. Estimates indicate that approximately 1.7 million youth are homeless in the United States (Oliveira & Burke, 2009). However, according to Fowler, Toro, and Miles (2009), approximately 3.5 million American youth are homeless and the number does not seem to be decreasing despite growing initiatives to stem growing rates of homelessness. Fowler, Toro, and Miles (2009) state that funds are available for those leaving foster care with help from Chaffee Foster Care program and the states, however the states opt not to do so and fail to provides services that prevent homelessness.

Thompson, Bender, Windsor, Cook, and Williams (2010), state that homeless adolescents are some of this nation’s most vulnerable youth and estimates the numbers between 500,000 to 2 million youth homeless in the U.S. Homeless youth is a rapidly growing population in the U.S. Within the scope of homelessness is immense not only in its commonness but also in the terms of its impact on young people’s psychosocial functioning (Fowler, Toro, & Miles, 2009). Homeless youth find themselves lonely and lacking emotional support as they attempt to deal with life on the streets (Thompson, Bender, Windsor, Cook, & Williams, 2010).Homeless adolescents experience mental health symptoms ranging from anxiety, ADHD, and developmental delays (Thompson, Bender, Windsor, Cook, & Williams, 2010).Slesnick, Min, Bonomo, and Prestopnik (2008), reported that only 28% of street youth reported accessing medical services, 10% accessing substance abuse treatment and 9% accessing mental health services. Studies suggest that 39-70% of homeless young people abuse drugs and alcohol (Thrane, Chen, Johnson, &Whetbeck, 2008).

The lack of transportation and knowledge of services creates a problem for homeless youth to access services. Youth who are homeless and gay, lesbian or bisexual are one of the most disenfranchised and marginalized groups in our society (Gangamma, Slesnick, Toivessi, &Serovich, 2007). In comparison of homeless sexual minority youth with homeless heterosexual youth, 53% of the homeless gay male youth reported at least one suicide attempt compared to 32% of the general homeless male youth (Walls, Potter, &Leeuwen, 2009). The range of the housing problems among adolescents who have left foster care may be underestimated as 12% to 14% of young people experience homelessness within a few years after they leave the system (Fowler, Toro, & Miles, 2009). The need for housing placement, education, and employment are services that homeless youth lack in their lives (Fowler, Toro, & Miles, 2009). Homelessness is not only urban problem because it is also experienced in rural areas.

However, compared to urban areas it is seen as invisible. When dealing with rural homelessness the same obstacles are experienced as those confronting urban youth (Skott-Myhre, Raby, & Nikolaou, 2008). Nonetheless, homeless youth are seen as inferior to service providers, law enforcement, and society. Youth homelessness presents a particular challenge for several reasons, including the fact that there is very little definitive data on the population, as this group often doesn’t interact with standard homeless assistance programs or government agencies. Lopez and Allen state that adolescents in foster care experience complex health care needs and face multiple barriers in receiving the necessary and appropriate health care services.

When the adolescent ages-out of foster care at 18 or 21 years-old they are expected to make a transition to independence with no financial resources, poor access to health care, few personal and family connections and little if any support from the foster care system. This places them at risk for poor physical and mental health status, poverty, unemployment, homelessness, and incarceration. No formalized system of transition planning has yet been established to meet the needs of adolescents before discharge from the foster care system. Homeless youth are significant and several causes are frequently presented in this research.

Free Capstone: Foster Care and Amp Essay Sample

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  • University/College: University of Arkansas System

  • Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter

  • Date: 24 December 2016

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