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Ptolemy XV Philopator Philometor Caesar (June 23, 47 BC – August 23, 30 BC), better known by the nicknames Caesarion and Ptolemy Caesar, was the last king of the Ptolemaic dynasty of Egypt, who reigned jointly with his mother Cleopatra VII of Egypt, he was nominally the sole pharaoh. Caesarion was proclaimed a god, son of god and “King of Kings”. Caesarion, who was said to be Cleopatra’s son by Julius Caesar, was sent by his mother, with much treasure, into India, by way of Ethiopia.
However, Caesarion’s guardians, including his tutor, either were themselves lured by false promises of mercy into returning the boy to Alexandria or perhaps even betrayed him; on the ground that Octavian invited him to take the kingdom of Egypt. The final conflict between Mark Antony (Marcus Antonius) and Octavian (future Emperor Augustus), Antony shared control of the Republic in a triumvirate with Octavian and Lepidus, but Lepidus was forced into retirement by Octavian in 36 BC, leaving Antony and Octavian as rivals.
Two years later, in 34 BC, Antony granted various eastern lands and titles to Caesarion and to his own three children with Cleopatra. After losing the Battle of Actium to Octavian’s forces, Antony committed suicide. Cleopatra followed suit, according to tradition killing herself by means of a snake bite on August 12, 30 BC. She was briefly outlived by Caesarion, who was declared pharaoh by his supporters, but he was soon killed on Octavian’s orders, who would become the Roman emperor Augustus.
Had Caesarion executed in Alexandria, following the advice of Arius Didymus, he advised Augustus to execute Caesarion, with the words “ouk agathon polukaisarie” (“it’s not good to have too many Caesars”) Augustus (Octavian) (September 23, 63 BC – August 19, 14 AD) is the founder of the Roman Empire and its first Emperor, ruling from 27 BC until his death in 14 AD.
Augustus died in 14 AD at the age of 75. He may have died from natural causes, though there were unconfirmed rumors that his wife Livia poisoned him.
He was succeeded as Emperor by his adopted son (also stepson and former son-in-law) Tiberius. Alexander Helios (25 December 40 BC – possibly between 29 BC – 25 BC) was a Ptolemaic prince and was the eldest son of Greek Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Roman triumvir Mark Antony. Cleopatra Selene II (25 December 40 BC-anywhere from 9 March 5 BC to 6), also known as Cleopatra VIII of Egypt or Cleopatra VIII was a Ptolemaic Princess and was the only daughter to Greek Ptolemaic queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt and Roman triumvir Mark Antony.
Ptolemy Philadelphus ( August/September 36 BC – 29 BC) was a Ptolemaic prince and was the youngest and fourth child of Greek Ptolemaic Queen Cleopatra VII of Egypt, and her third with Roman Triumvir Mark Antony. Octavian took him and elder siblings Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene II from Egypt to Italy. Octavian celebrated his military triumph in Rome, by parading the three orphans in heavy golden chains in the streets of Rome. The chains were so heavy they could not walk, prompting reactions of sympathy from the Romans.
The three siblings were taken by Octavian and given to Octavia Minor, Octavian’s second elder sister and the siblings’ father Mark Antony’s former wife. Tiberius (16 November 42 BC – 16 March 37 AD), was Roman Emperor from 14 AD to 37 AD. Pontius Pilatus, known in the English-speaking world as Pontius Pilate, was the fifth Prefect of the Roman province of Judaea, from AD 26–36. He is best known as the judge at Jesus’ trial and the man who authorized the crucifixion of Jesus. As prefect, he served under Emperor Tiberius.
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