Until the middle of the nineteenth century, historians and geographers in the European world held that history has a Locus. For them, pre-modern history began in the Bible Lands and it started moving westward and northward from western Asia into and across Western Europe. By 1492 the world scope of history was Eurasia. Only after 1492 did the world expand to include areas outside of Eurasia. For these historians, Africa, Oceania, the Americas, and part of Southeast Asia had no history until Europeans brought it to them in the sixteenth century and afterwards.
These regions did not exist until discovered by Europeans. REVIEWING THE PAST: Pre-contact history of the Americas does not have the same level of conceptual reality of post-contact history. Only very few world historians seem to know o about the native traditions that existed in pre-Columbian America. The post-Columbian world is filled with abstract frameworks such as the ‘Slave Trade’, ‘Colonialism’ ’poverty’ , beginning with Mesopotamia, the Indus Valley, ancient China and Egypt, the Assyrians and Persians, and ending with the Greeks, Romans and Byzantine Christians.
American Indian civilizations, primarily those of the Aztecs and Incas, only form a backdrop to the post-conquest European themes of contact, settlement, and expansion. COLONIALISM: Throughout the contemporary world native and aboriginal peoples face disputes regarding their human rights, political participation, and claims to their ancestral economic resources where historical globalization began in the fifteenth century.
Since then, colonialism and neocolonialism emerged in the global system. Natives and aboriginals were subjected to the worst side of the globalization process. We still can witness the legacy of such a development in the form of shabby leftovers. ECONOMY AND SLAVERY: Precious metals, commodities, and slave labor from the New World and Africa spurred the development of mercantile capitalism, the rise of the bourgeoisie, and the maturation of European absolutist states.
These, in conjunction with encounters with different peoples, gave birth to a synergy of political ideologies and philosophical tools that propelled Europe to world domination. The invention of America involved the simultaneous invention of Europe as the “West. ” conclusion: “The third-class people of the world have risen up and there is nothing we can do about it. ” By the third-class citizens of the world are people outside white Europe and the United States.
In 57 years as well, global interconnectedness has made itself ever more minutely felt through the communications revolution, the globalization of trade and production, and massive new migrations. Modernization analysis in the late 1950s began to take on a distinctive shape of its own. An intellectual transformation , a political transformation and a social transformation that mobilized human resources in an efficient way and engaged them in the process of modernization and globalization.