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Btec Sport – Health Saftey and Injury Essay

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* To recognise and understand different types of injuries

Types of injuries:-

* Muscle strains – tears, pulls and ruptures

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These are caused by vigorous stretching of a muscle or tendon. In is of regular occurrence in the hamstring and calf muscles when there is failure to warm up correctly before sport. The Achilles tendon of the calf can tear completely this causes sever pain.

Tear is where the muscle has been torn, Pull is where the muscle has been stretched and a Rupture is where the muscle completely breaks.

We will know when we have pulled torn or strained because there will severe pain and there will be difficulty when trying to use the muscle. There may also be swelling and later on bruising.

* Fractured Bones (broken)

A fracture is wear the bone cracks or completely snaps. Breaking bones is painful due to the amount of blood vessels and nerves in the bones. Fractures can be categorized in two ways. A Simple Fracture – This is just where the bone cracks. A Compound Fracture – This is where the bone sticks out of the skin. There is often tenderness around the bone making it hard to use and it will most certainly swell causing it to look deformed.

* Joint dislocation

Dislocation is where the bone is pulled out of its original joint. It is caused by stressing the bone, commonly by violent twisting. It usually happens at all major joints such as – Shoulder, finger, thumb, elbow and ankles. The bone will be surrounded by swelling and covered in bruises and will be tender to touch.

* Sprained Ligaments (over stretched ligaments)

A sprain happens when a ligament or joint get overstretched and torn. Sprains occur when twisting your foot while running or other similar accidents. The sprain should be treated as a fracture if the ligament is torn because it is a lot more severe. The area of damage while be very sore and will hurt to move it or use it

* Tendonitis –

Tendonitis is caused by overuse of the tendons, frequently in the lower arm in the lower arm; they then become inflamed and sore/painful. This is common with sports such as tennis and golf where the tendon in the elbow is under constant use. The elbow will be very sore and it becomes almost impossible to use without difficulty. Swelling will be visible surrounding the injured tendon.

* Concussion

Concussion is the result of injuring your brain from taking a lot of impact to the head such as being head butted or banging your head on a hard surface, these cause the brain to rattle around the skull. Concussion is often related with unconsciousness which often follows a serious head injury. In most cases the patient will become dizzy or drowsy and become confused. In major cases there may even be memory loss.

* Graze, Cuts, Burns and Bruises

These are caused by falling or scraping in a sporting event. They are usually painful but not very threatening and classed as minor. However some cuts can be very deep and would require urgent attention. Bruises will be painful but will not cause any permanent or long term damage. We will be able to recognise bruises by seeing discolouration of the skin and tenderness in that area.

* Spinal Injury

This is an injury to the spinal column. The spinal column contains nerves and ligaments and plays a major role in our body so when damaged by impact or strain it can be potentially dangerous to move without causing further permanent damage such as paralysis. This occurs after incidents such as car crashes and falls. You will be able to tell if u have damaged your spinal cord because it will be difficult to move and will cause a lot of pain.


* To recognise illnesses/conditions that can affect sports performance

* To discover the causes of injury

Types of Illnesses:-

* Viral Infections/Diseases

Chest Infections, Colds, Flu, Sickness etc.

People suffering from viral infections will often have a high temperature, be suffering from pains in the muscles making them feel weak. If someone has a viral infection such as a cold they will probably suffer with a blocked nose, fever, sore throat and frequent coughing. Viral infections cannot be cured using antibiotics, however there are products available to help relive the symptoms.

* Asthma

This makes a persons airways constrict making breathing difficult. Constriction is normally triggered by certain events such as allergies and temperature change. People having and ‘asthma attack’ will suffer with symptoms such as a tight chest, also they may start wheezing and be short of breath. This can be relived temporarily by using steroid sprays, one to open the airways when they feel they need it and one that should be taken daily to avoid having attacks later in the day.

* Hypothermia

This is where the body’s temperature drops below the normal temperature (around 36 degrees Celsius). The symptoms are usually tiredness, slurred speech and loss of coordination. In some extremities the colour and feeling can be lost in the hands and feet as the blood is being diverted away to keep the brain and heart working properly. People will generally feel better when they return to a warm environment as this will encourage the body to return to normal. Hypothermia is common with people such as mountain climber who are often exposed to cold environments for long periods of time.

* Hyperthermia

This is caused by exposure to high temperatures, such as being in the sun/high temperatures for long periods of time. The results of hyperthermia are that the person will be left exhausted. Headaches, tiredness and thirst are also associated. To relive these symptoms the person should drink lots of fluids, while exercising and when recovering. If the person becomes to hot they could potentially become unconscious then they would require the need of being put on a drip.

* Hypoglycaemia

Hypoglycaemia is caused by having low levels of glucose in the blood so enough isn’t reaching the vita places e.g. the brain. It is commonly associated with people who have type 1 diabetes. Not enough food, too much exercise, consuming too much alcohol and having too much insulin in the blood all contribute to causing hypoglycaemia. The symptoms of hypoglycaemia are confusion, shaking, paleness, hunger and in some extreme cases, unconsciousness. Eating food rich in carbohydrates can reverse these effects quite quickly

The Main Causes of Injury

Internally Caused

* Overuse Injuries

* Sudden Injuries

Externally Caused

* Impact Injuries

* Foul Play Injuries

* Equipment Injuries

* Accidental Injuries

Internally Caused Injuries – Direct result of the performer, no other person or factor is involved

Overuse Injuries (Tennis/Golfers Elbow, Shin Splints etc.)

These are caused by over training and over competing.

Sudden Injuries

These tend to be caused instantly because of over stretching, twisting and turning. They are commonly acknowledged with tiredness and fatigue and normally occur late on in a match. Also doing something too difficult can result in a sudden injury.

Externally Caused Injuries – Caused by someone or something other than yourself

Impact Injury

This is and injury from being hit or hitting something. These are often the result of things like:-

* An Opponent

* Equipment

* Playing Surface

* Playing Conditions

Foul Play Injuries

These are normally the result of another player breaking the rules and regulations of the game. They may be unaware of the rules or may be doing it intentionally to harm.

Accidental Injuries

Different activities have different levels and risk and higher elements of danger. For example Footballers are less likely to gain an injury than someone playing rugby due to it being more physical.

Equipment Injuries

Old or unchecked/faulty equipment can result in these injuries. Equipment must be frequently maintained to avoid these occurring. These can be as simple as blisters from overuse or in the most extreme cases, even death.

Prevention of Injuries

* Warm up; loosen muscles for prevention of pulling muscles.

* Wear the correct equipment (shin pads), wear them correctly to ensure safeness.

* Know and follow the rules of the game to be able to play fair, include using officials to keep the activity under control, this way players are less likely to get injured

* Check all equipment is safe and in good condition to ensure faulty equipment can’t injure you.

* Don’t over compete (not doing too much exorcise)

* Weather conditions- make sure the conditions are safe (not slippery, stormy etc.)

1. Preparation

Before playing or participating in any sport it is vital that you train to your age and you personal fitness. Also a good knowledge and understanding of the sport you will be participating in will also reduce the amount of injuries, a good respect for the rules and regulations of the game will reduce the injuries. A warm up and warm down is essential to help reduce the amount of injuries in the game. Consider having long hair, long nails, jewellery and also the types of clothing you wear could also give you an injury.

2. Participation

By according to the rules could prevent an injury, by using reckless tackles and reckless play can injure you and the opposing player. Officials have got to be consistent and fair in their decisions for the game to be fair and this could prevent someone from being injured, players must accept these decisions given by the officials.

3. Equipment

For the sport which you are participating in you need to be using the specialist equipment for that specific sport and has to be in good condition, such as shin pads for football, these have to be worn. All equipment has to be in top condition because if this equipment isn’t safe and fails you could be seriously injured such as rock climbing etc.

4. Environment

The area which the sport is being taken on has to be checked over for litter and unsafe objects. It has to be safe and appropriate. Also you have to check the weather conditions as this could lead the sport being potentially dangerous such as storms and windy weather.

Risk Assessment

1. You are about to conduct a badminton coaching session in the sports all.

* Make sure that none of the equipment is faulty. E.g. rackets have sufficient grip, nets secured correctly.

* Make sure that there is no wet floor

* Make sure there is no obstructions in the way of the courts

2. You are taking a year 7 group onto the field for football.

* Make sure that everyone is wearing the correct protective equipment. (e.g. shin pads)

* Make sure that there are no obstacles on the pitch or area where football will be played

* Make sure the weather conditions are suitable for playing

* Make sure that the pitch is suitable to play on by making sure its not icy or waterlogged

Potential risk of playing-

1. Badminton

* Fire

* Falls

* Foul play

* Asthma attack

* Hyperthermia

* Slips

* Lack of communication that could result in injury

* Sensible behaviour

* Know how to set up safe equipment

2. Football

* Falls

* Foul play

* Asthma attack

* Hyperthermia

* Spinal Injury

* Broken bones

* Concussion

* Weather conditions

* Lack of communication that could result in injury

* Sensible behaviour

* Potholes

* All spare equipment is out of the way

* Posts are secured

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